Amd cpu with amd gpu

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The latest version of Radeon Software adds an unusual (and welcome) new twist: The ability to automatically overclock your Ryzen processor if you’re rocking an all-AMD gaming desktop. Yes, your GPU software can speed up your CPU now, too—and it can do it all with a single click.

The addition might not come as a surprise if you’ve been paying close attention to AMD’s behavior over the past year. Now that Ryzen bests Intel processors and Radeon graphics cards go blow-for-blow with Nvidia’s top GPUs, gamers can get no-compromises performance from an all-AMD rig for the first time in many years—and AMD has been working hard to strengthen the ties between the two product lineups. Smart Access Memory grants your Ryzen CPU full access to your Radeon GPU’s memory, while Smart Shift technology lets laptops with a Ryzen/Radeon combo intelligently shift more power to either component when it’s needed for faster performance. And earlier this year, AMD worked Ryzen performance monitoring into Radeon Software.

radeon software ryzen cpuAMD

The addition of Ryzen auto-overclocking in Radeon Software continues the theme, and might just allow you to ditch AMD’s separate Ryzen Master tool if you’re running a Team Red graphics card. They’ll need to be newer hardware, though, as the feature currently only supports AMD’s latest Ryzen CPUs and Radeon RX GPUs.

AMD’s blog describes how to use the new tool:

To access this easy-to-use feature, open up Radeon Software using the hotkey ‘ALT’ + ‘R’, navigate to the ‘Performance’ tab found at the top of the window, and select ‘Tuning’ in the sub tab directly below it.

If you have the latest generation of AMD Ryzen and Radeon product installed on your system, a ‘Tuning Control’ section should appear for your system, allowing you to select ‘Auto Overclock’ to increase performance on both your processor and graphics card. We also have a new tuning section for CPUs, allowing you to overclock just your CPU.

When the feature is selected, the system will ask for a restart and once you are back in Windows, you will be good to go!

Groovy. Hardcore tinkerers will probably want to stick to third-party software that offers more granular controls, but for the vast majority of PC gamers, having a one-click “overclock everything” button for you all-AMD system should be a big bonus (assuming your cooling is up to snuff).

Beyond the newfound Ryzen synergy, Radeon Software also adds official Windows 11 support and the ability for Radeon RX series GPUs to tap into Smart Access Memory. AMD also took the time to tout FidelityFX Super Resolution’s rapid uptake. The DLSS rival is now supported in 27 games, with Arkane’s awesome-looking Deathloop set to launch this week with native FSR support in place.

You can download these new drivers via AMD’s website or through your existing Radeon Software installation.


AMD Processors: the best AMD CPUs in


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Included in this guide:

The best AMD processors are so much more than affordable alternatives to Intel’s offerings. With the Ryzen 3rd Generation and more recently the Ryzen series, AMD has proven that it can deliver the kind of power and performance to make anyone, regardless of budget, give AMD chips a serious consideration.

So, are the best AMD processors the king of the CPU mountain? No, they’re not, at least yet. But they offer stiff competition, especially with the striking showing in the high-end range with the AMD Ryzen 9 X. And, it also helps that AMD is able to make these powerful CPUs that go toe-to-toe with its rivals, but with a more affordable price tag than the competition.

AMD is, however, gunning for Intel in the ever-ongoing AMD vs Intel battle. And, to help you choose the best AMD processor for you, we’ve gathered our top picks from the current offerings here. If you’re looking for a quality processor, you’ll find one here.

The best AMD CPUs at a glance

  1. AMD Ryzen 9 X
  2. AMD Ryzen 5 X
  3. AMD Ryzen 7 X
  4. AMD Ryzen 9 X
  5. AMD Ryzen Threadripper X

1. AMD Ryzen 9 X

Best CPU for high-end gaming


Cores: 12

Threads: 24

Base clock: GHz

Boost clock: GHz

L3 cache: 64MB


Reasons to buy

+Amazing performance+A new single-core champion+Same power consumption

Reasons to avoid

-Price went up-No included cooler

The AMD Ryzen 9 X brings the biggest gen-on-gen jump in a single performance in years, making it a terrific upgrade. This latest release from AMD is not just a stronger processor across the board. It’s also an incredibly powerful processor for gaming and creative work full stop. The fact that you won’t need a new motherboard is just a nice perk.

Read the full review: AMD Ryzen 9 X

2. AMD Ryzen 5 X

Best AMD processor for gaming


Cores: 6

Threads: 12

Base clock: GHz

Boost clock: GHz

L3 cache: 32MB

TDP: 95W

Reasons to buy

+Excellent performance+Affordable+Includes a cooler

Reasons to avoid

-Still 6-cores

Showcasing an impressive multi-threading performance as well as competitive performance in even the most intense single-threaded applications, this mid-range chip cannot help but take the throne as the best AMD processor for gaming. And, AMD Ryzen 5 X doesn’t just stop there: it takes that budget-minded stage of performance to a new level, with increased IPC (instructions per clock) performance, along with a higher clock speed – while staying at the same price point.

Read the full review: AMD Ryzen 5 X

3. AMD Ryzen 7 X

Ryzen to the top


Cores: 8

Threads: 16

Base clock: GHz

Boost clock: GHz

L3 cache: 32MB


Reasons to buy

+Excellent single-core performance+Strong for gaming+Low power

Reasons to avoid

-Price jump from Ryzen No included cooler

Intel no longer has the monopoly on gaming CPUs. Rocking 8 cores and 16 threads, along with much stronger single-core performance, the AMD Ryzen 7 X is among the best CPUs for gaming – as well as less demanding creative work – right now. And it comes with a much more approachable price tag compared to most of Intel’s offerings, making it a much better value.

Read the full review: AMD Ryzen 7 X

4. AMD Ryzen 9 X

Moonlights as an HEDT processor


Cores: 16

Threads: 32

Base clock: GHz

Boost clock: GHz

L3 cache: 64MB


Reasons to buy

+Cheaper than HEDT+PCIe +Fits in AM4 socket

Reasons to avoid

-Needs extra cooling-Limited gaming advantage

The AMD Ryzen 9 X is so great that in our review, we went as far as to call it the baddest cat in town when it comes to processors that don’t land in the HEDT (high-end desktop) category of processors. Built on AMD’s 7nm Zen 2 architecture, it has a whopping 16 cores and 32 threads, making it excellent for heavily threaded computer work. If you’re looking for one of the best AMD processors that can handle both processing tasks and high-end gaming, the AMD Ryzen 9 X is a strong contender.

Read the full review:

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AMD CPUs have become the new personal favorite for gamers due to their lower price than Intel CPUs. However, most gamers tend to prefer NVIDIA GPUs over AMD GPUs because of their higher performance.

So, the perfect combination for a gaming computer would be an AMD CPU paired with an NVIDIA GPU. But, a big question arises here is do AMD CPUs work with NVIDIA GPUs?

Yes, AMD CPUs work perfectly in combination with NVIDIA GPUs. You can use an AMD CPU with NVIDIA GPU without any performance issues as long as you get a compatible Motherboard, a good Power Supply unit, a desktop case or a laptop with good thermals and a high-end cooling system.

In this article, I will go through some of the reasons why AMD CPUs work with NVIDIA GPUs, the performance levels of the combination, and whether AMD CPU with NVIDIA GPU combination is better than AMD CPU and AMD GPU combination?

Page Contents

Does AMD CPU work with NVIDIA GPU?

Yes, AMD CPU works with NVIDIA GPU. In order to understand how this system works you need to understand the functioning of CPUs and GPUs.


CPUs and GPUs communicate over the PCIe bus. In order for a CPU and GPU to be compatible with each other, they need to have an architecture that follows the general rule of PCIe which is PCI Express x16 architecture, as either or (3rd generation/2nd generation).

The good thing is that Intel, AMD, and NVIDIA follow this strict rule so you can use any combination without running into problems. You can pair an Intel CPU with AMD GPU, an Intel CPU with NVIDIA GPU, an AMD CPU with NVIDIA GPU, and an AMD CPU with an AMD GPU.

Now, both AMD Graphics cards and NVIDIA Graphics cards have a similar architecture with some slight differences. When you plug in the AMD GPU or the NVIDIA GPU, the hardware details for each of them are controlled by the Graphics cards Display Drivers. That is why for optimal performance you need to keep your Graphics card drivers up to date.

Is AMD compatible with NVIDIA?

Yes, AMD CPUs are compatible with NVIDIA GPUs as long as you select a Motherboard that is compatible with both AMD CPU and NVIDIA GPU, a high-end Power Supply Unit (PSU) that supplies enough power for both the AMD CPU and NVIDIA GPU to function properly, a good thermal system and a high-end CPU cooling system.

The first thing that you need to use for the above combination is a compatible Motherboard. NVIDIA GPUs work with most AMD Motherboards that have got a PCIe x16 slot available i.e. they share the same connection ports.

ASUS motherboard

Most motherboards for gaming have a PCI Express x16, as either or For Nvidia GPUs, most current models have a PCI Exp. x16 , however, they are backward compatible, so a can work with a You should be able to slot in whatever PCIe graphics card you want as long as you have got the latest BIOS and a sufficient PSU wattage.

Next up is the Power Supply Unit (PSU). This is very important because the AMD CPU and NVIDIA GPU combination requires a hefty amount of power to function properly. You need to select a great PSU that supplies enough power to both the CPU and the GPU.

Lastly, you need to select a desktop case with great thermals and a high-end Cooling system. If you&#;re using a laptop then make sure to check out reviews of the thermals and the cooling system for the laptop.

I am currently using an AMD Ryzen 9 HX CPU along with an NVIDIA GeForce RTX Graphics card and the performance is insane.

So yeah, my desktop is living proof that AMD CPU is compatible with an NVIDIA GPU.


If you select a compatible Motherboard, a high-end Power Supply Unit, good thermals, and a great cooling system then you won&#;t run into any performance issues whatsoever.

However, you could land into issues if you make a mistake while choosing any one of the above four.

If you select an incompatible Motherboard then your CPU and GPU won&#;t work together. This is the biggest mistake you could make. So, make sure the CPU and GPU are compatible with your Motherboard.

Next up, you need to select a high-end Power Supply Unit (PSU). I personally use the Crossair RM i PSU and it works like a charm. Your PSU should be good enough to supply an adequate amount of power to both the CPU and GPU for them to work properly.

If there are issues with Power Supply then it could lead to Overheating and component failures, including fuses, bridge rectifiers, diodes, and FETs.

Finally, you need a good enough cooling system with great thermals. The AMD CPU and NVIDIA GPU combination generates a lot of heat and that is why your cooling system is really important to get a constant FPS without any performance issues otherwise it could lead to CPU Throttling, GPU Throttling, GPU Artifacting, or in the worst case your GPU may get damaged.

Intel or AMD CPU with NVIDIA GPU &#; Which is Better?

I have personally found that Intel CPUs work better with NVIDIA GPUs but this combination is costlier than AMD CPU with NVIDIA GPU. AMD CPUs also perform really well with NVIDIA GPUs so it all comes down to what you can afford.


Intel CPUs are very costly and if you can afford an Intel CPU then you should definitely go with Intel CPU and NVIDIA GPU. If you are looking for a budget-friendly option then I would recommend you to go with an AMD CPU and NVIDIA GPU combo.

AMD CPU with NVIDIA or AMD GPU &#; Which is Better?

NVIDIA GPUs perform way better than AMD GPUs when paired with an AMD CPU. AMD GPUs have a lot of graphics card driver issues but the drivers in NVIDIA GPU are more stable and don&#;t have such issues.

Here is a video that reviews the gaming performance of an AMD CPU paired with an AMD GPU and an AMD CPU paired with an NVIDIA GPU.

As you can see from the above video, the NVIDIA GPU outperforms the AMD GPU in almost every case. You get much better FPS and there are no lags. That is why I recommend NVIDIA GPUs over AMD GPUs when used with an AMD CPU.


All the big computer manufactures have now come up with laptops having AMD Ryzen processors and NVIDIA Graphics Cards. Here is a list of the best laptops with an AMD CPU and an NVIDIA GPU.


The Alienware M15 Ryzen edition contains AMD Ryzen R7 H processor with an NVIDIA GeForce RTX 6GB GDDR6 Graphics card. You also have the option to use NVIDIA GeForce RTX and NVIDIA GeForce RTX Graphics cards.


The Razer Blade 14 is regarded as the most powerful inch gaming laptop. It has AMD Ryzen 9 HX processor with NVIDIA GeForce RTX Graphics card.

(3) ASUS ROG Flow X13

The Asus ROG Flow X13 has AMD Ryzen 9 HS CPU with Nvidia GeForce GTX Graphics card. You also have the option to use NVIDIA GeForce RTX in combination with the AMD Ryzen 9 CPU.

(4) ASUS &#; ROG Zephyrus G15

The Asus ROG Zephyrus G15 has AMD Ryzen 9 HS along with the Nvidia GeForce RTX GPU. This is one of the most powerful AMD CPU and NVIDIA GPU combinations you can currently get.


The Lenovo Legion 5 Pro has AMD Ryzen 7 H CPU and Nvidia GeForce RTX GPU. This combination runs most high-end games without any lags and is far cheaper than other AMD CPU and NVIDIA GPU combinations.


The Acer Nitro 5 has an AMD Ryzen H CPU and Nvidia GeForce GTX GPU. It is a great choice for gamers looking for a budget-friendly gaming laptop that has an AMD CPU and NVIDIA GPU.

(7) HP OMEN 15

The HP Omen 15 is a inch gaming laptop with an AMD Ryzen 7 H CPU and an Nvidia GeForce GTX  GPU. It is another great option for a budget-friendly gaming laptop.

(8) HP PAVILION Gaming Laptop

The HP Pavilion gaming laptop has an AMD Ryzen 5 H processor paired with an NVIDIA GTX GPU, which is a solid pairing for p gaming.

(9) ASUS TUF Gaming A15

The Asus TUF Gaming A15 laptop comes with a variety of AMD CPUs and NVIDIA GPU combinations. The options for AMD CPUs in this laptop are AMD Ryzen 7 H Processor, AMD Ryzen 9 H Processor, and AMD Ryzen 5 H Processor.

The options for NVIDIA GPUs in this laptop are NVIDIA GeForce RTX , NVIDIA GeForce GTX  Ti, NVIDIA GeForce GTX Ti and NVIDIA GeForce GTX 

Will an AMD GPU work with an Intel CPU?

Yes, an AMD GPU will be compatible with an Intel CPU as long as you select a compatible Motherboard with PCI Express x16, as either or You also need to select a high-end Power Supply Unit (PSU) that can provide enough power supply to both the AMD GPU and the Intel CPU.

Another thing to keep in mind is the Thermal and Cooling system. The above combination can generate a lot more heat than the native Intel CPU and NVIDIA GPU combination so make sure to use a laptop or desktop with a high-end cooling system.

AMD CPU with NVIDIA GPU for Deep Learning &#; Does it Work?

Yes, you can use an AMD CPU with NVIDIA GPU for running Deep Learning applications that require CUDA and cuDNN drivers but this isn&#;t recommended.

Most deep learning applications recommend you to use a powerful Intel CPU like Intel iK or the Intel iX along with a CUDA compatible NVIDIA Graphics card or an AMD Ryzen CPU with Stream Processors and a compatible AMD GPU like AMD Radeon RX XT, or the AMD Radeon RX XT or the XT.

There have been instances where people have successfully used an AMD CPU and AMD chipset with NVIDIA GPU to run deep learning applications by installing NVIDIA graphics drivers and the CUDA SDK that those deep learning applications require.

So, the AMD CPU and NVIDIA GPU combination can run deep learning applications but as mentioned earlier it is not recommended even though it is cheaper.


AMD CPUs work really well with NVIDIA GPUs. The combination is far cheaper than the Intel and NVIDIA combination which is why a lot of gamers prefer to go with them.

I have tried really hard to cover everything in this article but in case I missed anything you can comment it down below and I will include your suggestions in this article.

Categories Knowledge CentreTags amd, cpu, gpu, intel cpu processor, nvidiaSours:
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Advanced Micro Devices

"AMD" redirects here. For other uses, see AMD (disambiguation).

American multinational semiconductor company

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinationalsemiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets. While it initially manufactured its own processors, the company later outsourced its manufacturing, a practice known as going fabless, after GlobalFoundries was spun off in AMD's main products include microprocessors, motherboardchipsets, embedded processors and graphics processors for servers, workstations, personal computers and embedded system applications.


First twelve years[edit]

Advanced Micro Devices was formally incorporated by Jerry Sanders, along with seven of his colleagues from Fairchild Semiconductor, on May 1, [2][3] Sanders, an electrical engineer who was the director of marketing at Fairchild, had, like many Fairchild executives, grown frustrated with the increasing lack of support, opportunity, and flexibility within the company. He later decided to leave to start his own semiconductor company.[4]Robert Noyce, who had developed the first silicon integrated circuit at Fairchild in ,[5] had left Fairchild together with Gordon Moore and founded the semiconductor company Intel in July [6]

In September , AMD moved from its temporary location in Santa Clara to Sunnyvale, California.[7] To immediately secure a customer base, AMD initially became a second source supplier of microchips designed by Fairchild and National Semiconductor.[8][9] AMD first focused on producing logic chips.[10] The company guaranteed quality control to United States Military Standard, an advantage in the early computer industry since unreliability in microchips was a distinct problem that customers – including computer manufacturers, the telecommunications industry, and instrument manufacturers – wanted to avoid.[8][11][12][13]

In November , the company manufactured its first product: the Am, a 4-bitMSIshift register, which began selling in [13][14] Also in , AMD produced its first proprietary product, the Am logic counter, which was highly successful.[15][16] Its best-selling product in was the Am, the fastest multiplier available.[15][17]

In , AMD entered the RAM chip market, beginning with the Am, a bit bipolar RAM.[17][18] That year AMD also greatly increased the sales volume of its linear integrated circuits, and by year-end the company's total annual sales reached US$ million.[15][19]

AMD went public in September [8][20][21] The company was a second source for Intel MOS/LSI circuits by , with products such as Am14/ and Am14/, dual bit dynamic shift registers.[22][23] By , AMD was producing products – of which 49 were proprietary, including the Am (a staticN-channel bit RAM)[24] and three low-power SchottkyMSI circuits: Am25LS07, Am25LS08, and Am25LS[25]

Intel had created the first microprocessor, its 4-bit , in [26][27] By , AMD entered the microprocessor market with the Am, a reverse-engineered clone of the Intel ,[28][29][30] and the Ambit-slice microprocessor family.[29] When Intel began installing microcode in its microprocessors in , it entered into a cross-licensing agreement with AMD, which was granted a copyright license to the microcode in its microprocessors and peripherals, effective October [25][31][32][33][34]

In , AMD entered into a joint venture with Siemens, a German engineering conglomerate wishing to enhance its technology expertise and enter the American market.[35] Siemens purchased 20% of AMD's stock, giving the company an infusion of cash to increase its product lines.[35][36][37] The two companies also jointly established Advanced Micro Computers (AMC), located in Silicon Valley and in Germany, allowing AMD to enter the microcomputer development and manufacturing field,[35][38][39][40] in particular based on AMD's second-source ZilogZ microprocessors.[41][42] When the two companies' vision for Advanced Micro Computers diverged, AMD bought out Siemens' stake in the American division in [43][44] AMD closed Advanced Micro Computers in late after switching focus to manufacturing second-source Intel x86 microprocessors.[41][45][46]

Total sales in fiscal year topped $ million,[38] and in , AMD debuted on the New York Stock Exchange.[16] In , production also began on AMD's new semiconductor fabrication plant in Austin, Texas;[16] the company already had overseas assembly facilities in Penang and Manila,[47] and began construction on a fabrication plant in San Antonio in [48] In , AMD began supplying semiconductor products for telecommunications, an industry undergoing rapid expansion and innovation.[49]

Technology exchange agreement with Intel[edit]

Intel had introduced the first x86 microprocessors in [50] In , IBM created its PC, and wanted Intel's x86 processors, but only under the condition that Intel also provide a second-source manufacturer for its patented x86 microprocessors.[11] Intel and AMD entered into a year technology exchange agreement, first signed in October [45][51] and formally executed in February [34] The terms of the agreement were that each company could acquire the right to become a second-source manufacturer of semiconductor products developed by the other; that is, each party could "earn" the right to manufacture and sell a product developed by the other, if agreed to, by exchanging the manufacturing rights to a product of equivalent technical complexity. The technical information and licenses needed to make and sell a part would be exchanged for a royalty to the developing company.[33] The agreement also extended the AMD–Intel cross-licensing agreement through [33][34] The agreement included the right to invoke arbitration of disagreements, and after five years the right of either party to end the agreement with one year's notice.[33] The main result of the agreement was that AMD became a second-source manufacturer of Intel's x86 microprocessors and related chips, and Intel provided AMD with database tapes for its , , and chips.[34] However, in the event of a bankruptcy or takeover of AMD, the cross-licensing agreement would be effectively cancelled.[52]

Beginning in , AMD began volume-producing second-source Intel-licensed , , , and processors, and by , its own Am clone of Intel's processor, for the rapidly growing market of IBM PCs and IBM clones.[11][53] It also continued its successful concentration on proprietary bipolar chips.[54] In , it introduced INT.STD, the highest manufacturing quality standard in the industry.[13][48]

The company continued to spend greatly on research and development,[55] and in addition to other breakthrough products, created the world's first K EPROM in [56] That year, AMD was listed in the book The Best Companies to Work for in America,[48][57] and later made the Fortune list for the first time in [58][59]

By mid, the microchip market experienced a severe downturn, mainly due to long-term aggressive trade practices (dumping) from Japan, but also due to a crowded and non-innovative chip market in the United States.[60] AMD rode out the mids crisis by aggressively innovating and modernizing,[61] devising the Liberty Chip program of designing and manufacturing one new chip or chipset per week for 52 weeks in fiscal year ,[48][62] and by heavily lobbying the U.S. government until sanctions and restrictions were put in place to prevent predatory Japanese pricing.[63] During this time, AMD withdrew from the DRAM market,[64] and made some headway into the CMOS market, which it had lagged in entering, having focused instead on bipolar chips.[65]

AMD had some success in the mids with the AMD and AMD "World Chip" FSK modem, one of the first multi-standard devices that covered both Bell and CCITT tones at up to baud half duplex or / full duplex.[66] Beginning in , AMD embraced the perceived shift toward RISC with their own AMD Am (29k) processor;[67] the 29k survived as an embedded processor.[68][69] The company also increased its EPROM memory market share in the late s.[70] Throughout the s, AMD was a second-source supplier of Intel x86 processors. In , it introduced its own compatible Am, an AMD-designed chip. Creating its own chips, AMD began to compete directly with Intel.[71]

AMD had a large, successful flash memory business, even during the dotcom bust.[72] In , to divest some manufacturing and aid its overall cash flow, which was under duress from aggressive microprocessor competition from Intel, AMD spun off its flash memory business and manufacturing into Spansion, a joint venture with Fujitsu, which had been co-manufacturing flash memory with AMD since [73][74] In December , AMD divested itself of Spansion in order to focus on the microprocessor market, and Spansion went public in an IPO.[75]

Acquisition of ATI, spin-off of GlobalFoundries, and acquisition of Xilinx[edit]

On July 24, , AMD announced its acquisition of the graphics processor company ATI Technologies. AMD paid $&#;billion and 58&#;million shares of its stock, for a total of approximately $&#;billion. The transaction was completed on October 25, [76] On August 30, , AMD announced that it would retire the ATI brand name for its graphics chipsets in favor of the AMD brand name.[77][78]

In October , AMD announced plans to spin off manufacturing operations in the form of GlobalFoundries Inc., a multibillion-dollar joint venture with Advanced Technology Investment Co., an investment company formed by the government of Abu Dhabi. The partnership and spin-off gave AMD an infusion of cash and allowed it to focus solely on chip design.[79] To assure the Abu Dhabi investors of the new venture's success, AMD's CEO Hector Ruiz stepped down in July , while remaining executive chairman, in preparation for becoming chairman of GlobalFoundries in March [80][81] President and COO Dirk Meyer became AMD's CEO.[82] Recessionary losses necessitated AMD cutting 1, jobs in [83]

In August , AMD announced that former Lenovo executive Rory Read would be joining the company as CEO, replacing Meyer.[84] In November , AMD announced plans to lay off more than 10% (1,) of its employees from across all divisions worldwide.[85] In October , it announced plans to lay off an additional 15% of its workforce to reduce costs in the face of declining sales revenue.[86]

AMD acquired the low-power server manufacturer SeaMicro in early , with an eye to bringing out an ARM architecture server chip.[87]

On October 8, , AMD announced that Rory Read had stepped down after three years as president and chief executive officer.[88] He was succeeded by Lisa Su, a key lieutenant who had been serving as chief operating officer since June.[89]

On October 16, , AMD announced a new restructuring plan along with its Q3 results. Effective July 1, , AMD reorganized into two business groups: Computing and Graphics, which primarily includes desktop and notebook processors and chipsets, discrete GPUs, and professional graphics; and Enterprise, Embedded, and Semi-Custom, which primarily includes server and embedded processors, dense servers, semi-custom SoC products (including solutions for gaming consoles), engineering services, and royalties. As part of this restructuring, AMD announced that 7% of its global workforce would be laid off by the end of [90]

After the GlobalFoundries spin-off and subsequent layoffs, AMD was left with significant vacant space at 1 AMD Place, its aging Sunnyvale headquarters office complex. In August , AMD's 47 years in Sunnyvale came to a close when it signed a lease with the Irvine Company for a new , sq. ft. headquarters building in Santa Clara.[91] AMD's new location at Santa Clara Square faces the headquarters of archrival Intel across the Bayshore Freeway and San Tomas Aquino Creek. Around the same time, AMD also agreed to sell 1 AMD Place to the Irvine Company.[92] In April , the Irvine Company secured approval from the Sunnyvale City Council of its plans to demolish 1 AMD Place and redevelop the entire acre site into townhomes and apartments.[92]

In October , AMD announced that it was acquiring Xilinx in an all-stock transaction valued at $35 billion. The deal is expected to be completed by the end of [93]

List of CEOs[edit]


CPUs and APUs[edit]

See also: List of AMD microprocessors

IBM PC and the x86 architecture[edit]

Main articles: Am, Am, Am, and Am5x86

In February , AMD signed a contract with Intel, becoming a licensed second-source manufacturer of and processors. IBM wanted to use the Intel in its IBM PC, but its policy at the time was to require at least two sources for its chips. AMD later produced the Am under the same arrangement. In , Intel internally decided to no longer cooperate with AMD in supplying product information in order to shore up its advantage in the marketplace, and delayed and eventually refused to convey the technical details of the Intel [94] In , AMD invoked arbitration over the issue, and Intel reacted by canceling the technological-exchange agreement altogether.[95][96] After three years of testimony, AMD eventually won in arbitration in , but Intel disputed this decision. Another long legal dispute followed, ending in when the Supreme Court of California sided with the arbitrator and AMD.[97][98]

In , Intel countersued AMD, renegotiating AMD's right to use derivatives of Intel's microcode for its cloned processors.[99] In the face of uncertainty during the legal dispute, AMD was forced to develop clean room designed versions of Intel code for its x and x processors, the former long after Intel had released its own x in [] In March , AMD released the Am, its clone of the Intel processor.[48] By October of the same year it had sold one million units.[48]

In , AMD introduced the first of the Am family of processors,[16] which proved popular with a large number of original equipment manufacturers, including Compaq, which signed an exclusive agreement using the Am[8][][] The Am5x86, another Ambased processor, was released in November , and continued AMD's success as a fast, cost-effective processor.[][]

Finally, in an agreement effective , AMD received the rights to the microcode in Intel's x and x processor families, but not the rights to the microcode in the following generations of processors.[][]

K5, K6, Athlon, Duron, and Sempron[edit]

Main articles: AMD K5, AMD K6, Athlon, Duron, and Sempron

AMD's first in-house x86 processor was the K5, launched in [] The "K" in its name was a reference to Kryptonite, the only substance which known to harm comic book character Superman. This itself was a reference to Intel's hegemony over the market, i.e., an anthropomorphization of them as Superman.[] The number "5" was a reference to the fifth generation of x86 processors; rival Intel had previously introduced its line of fifth-generation x86 processors as Pentium because the U.S. Trademark and Patent Office had ruled that mere numbers could not be trademarked.[]

In , AMD purchased NexGen, specifically for the rights to their Nx series of xcompatible processors. AMD gave the NexGen design team their own building, left them alone, and gave them time and money to rework the Nx The result was the K6 processor, introduced in Although it was based on Socket 7, variants such as K/ were faster than Intel's Pentium II (sixth-generation processor).

The K7 was AMD's seventh-generation x86 processor, making its debut under the brand name Athlon on June 23, Unlike previous AMD processors, it could not be used on the same motherboards as Intel's, due to licensing issues surrounding Intel's Slot 1 connector, and instead used a Slot A connector, referenced to the Alpha processor bus. The Duron was a lower-cost and limited version of the Athlon (64KB instead of KB L2 cache) in a pin socketed PGA (socket A) or soldered directly onto the motherboard. Sempron was released as a lower-cost Athlon XP, replacing Duron in the socket A PGA era. It has since been migrated upward to all new sockets, up to AM3.

On October 9, , the Athlon XP was released. On February 10, , the Athlon XP with KB L2 Cache was released.[]

Athlon 64, Opteron and Phenom[edit]

Main articles: Athlon 64, Opteron, and Phenom (processor)

The K8 was a major revision of the K7 architecture, with the most notable features being the addition of a bit extension to the x86 instruction set (called x, AMD64, or x64), the incorporation of an on-chip memory controller, and the implementation of an extremely high performance point-to-point interconnect called HyperTransport, as part of the Direct Connect Architecture. The technology was initially launched as the Opteron server-oriented processor on April 22, [] Shortly thereafter, it was incorporated into a product for desktop PCs, branded Athlon []

On April 21, , AMD released the first dual coreOpteron, an xbased server CPU.[] A month later, it released the Athlon 64 X2, the first desktop-based dual core processor family.[] In May , AMD abandoned the string "64" in its dual-core desktop product branding, becoming Athlon X2, downplaying the significance of bit computing in its processors. Further updates involved improvements to the microarchitecture, and a shift of the target market from mainstream desktop systems to value dual-core desktop systems. In , AMD started to release dual-core Sempron processors exclusively in China, branded as the Sempron series, with lower HyperTransport speed and smaller L2 cache. AMD completed its dual-core product portfolio for each market segment.

In September , AMD released the first server Opteron K10 processors,[] followed in November by the Phenom processor for desktop. K10 processors came in dual-core, triple-core,[] and quad-core versions, with all cores on a single die. AMD released a new platform codenamed "Spider", which utilized the new Phenom processor, as well as an R GPU and a GX/FX chipset from the AMD chipset series.[] However, AMD built the Spider at 65nm, which was uncompetitive with Intel's smaller and more power-efficient 45nm.

In January , AMD released a new processor line dubbed Phenom II, a refresh of the original Phenom built using the 45&#;nm process.[] AMD's new platform, codenamed "Dragon", utilized the new Phenom II processor, and an ATI R GPU from the R GPU family, as well as a GX/FX chipset from the AMD chipset series.[] The Phenom II came in dual-core, triple-core and quad-core variants, all using the same die, with cores disabled for the triple-core and dual-core versions. The Phenom II resolved issues that the original Phenom had, including a low clock speed, a small L3 cache, and a Cool'n'Quiet bug that decreased performance. The Phenom II cost less but was not performance-competitive with Intel's mid-to-high-range Core 2 Quads. The Phenom II also enhanced its predecessor's memory controller, allowing it to use DDR3 in a new native socket AM3, while maintaining backward compatibility with AM2+, the socket used for the Phenom, and allowing the use of the DDR2 memory that was used with the platform.

In April , AMD released a new Phenom II Hexa-core (6-core) processor codenamed "Thuban".[] This was a totally new die based on the hexa-core "Istanbul" Opteron processor. It included AMD's "turbo core" technology, which allows the processor to automatically switch from 6 cores to 3 faster cores when more pure speed is needed.

The Magny Cours and Lisbon server parts were released in [] The Magny Cours part came in 8 to 12&#;cores and the Lisbon part in 4 and 6&#;core parts. Magny Cours is focused on performance while the Lisbon part is focused on high performance per watt. Magny Cours is an MCM (multi-chip module) with two hexa-core "Istanbul" Opteron parts. This will use a new G34 socket for dual and quad-socket processors and thus will be marketed as Opteron 61xx series processors. Lisbon uses C32 socket certified for dual-socket use or single socket use only and thus will be marketed as Opteron 41xx processors. Both will be built on a 45 nm SOI process.

Fusion becomes the AMD APU[edit]

Main articles: AMD APU and AMD mobile platform

Following AMD's acquisition of Canadian graphics company ATI Technologies, an initiative codenamed Fusion was announced to integrate a CPU and GPU together on some of AMD's microprocessors, including a built in PCI Express link to accommodate separate PCI Express peripherals, eliminating the northbridge chip from the motherboard. The initiative intended to move some of the processing originally done on the CPU (e.g. floating-point unit operations) to the GPU, which is better optimized for some calculations. The Fusion was later renamed the AMD APU (Accelerated Processing Unit).[]

Llano was AMD's first APU built for laptops. Llano was the second APU released,[] targeted at the mainstream market.[] It incorporated a CPU and GPU on the same die, as well as northbridge functions, and used "Socket FM1" with DDR3 memory. The CPU part of the processor was based on the Phenom II "Deneb" processor. AMD suffered an unexpected decrease in revenue based on production problems for the Llano.[]

New microarchitectures[edit]

High-power, high-performance Bulldozer cores[edit]

Main articles: Bulldozer microarchitecture, Piledriver microarchitecture, Steamroller microarchitecture, and Excavator microarchitecture

Bulldozer was AMD's microarchitecture codename for server and desktop AMD FX processors, first released on October 12, This family 15h microarchitecture is the successor to the family 10h (K10) microarchitecture design. Bulldozer was a clean-sheet design, not a development of earlier processors.[] The core was specifically aimed at 10–&#;WTDP computing products. AMD claimed dramatic performance-per-watt efficiency improvements in high-performance computing (HPC) applications with Bulldozer cores. While hopes were high that Bulldozer would bring AMD to be performance-competitive with Intel once more, most benchmarks were disappointing. In some cases the new Bulldozer products were slower than the K10 models they were built to replace.[][][]

The Piledriver microarchitecture was the successor to Bulldozer, increasing clock speeds and performance relative to its predecessor.[] Piledriver would be released in AMD FX, APU, and Opteron product lines.[][][][] Piledriver was subsequently followed by the Steamroller microarchitecture in Used exclusively in AMD's APUs, Steamroller focused on greater parallelism.[][]

In , the Excavator microarchitecture replaced Piledriver.[] Expected to be the last microarchitecture of the Bulldozer series,[][] Excavator focused on improved power efficiency.[]

Low-power Cat cores[edit]

Main articles: Bobcat microarchitecture, Jaguar microarchitecture, and Puma microarchitecture

The Bobcat microarchitecture was revealed during a speech from AMD executive vice-president Henri Richard in Computex and was put into production during the first quarter of [] Based on the difficulty competing in the x86 market with a single core optimized for the 10–&#;W range, AMD had developed a simpler core with a target range of 1–10&#;watts.[] In addition, it was believed that the core could migrate into the hand-held space if the power consumption can be reduced to less than 1&#;W.[]

Jaguar is a microarchitecture codename for Bobcat's successor, released in , that is used in various APUs from AMD aimed at the low-power/low-cost market.[] Jaguar and its derivates would go on to be used in the custom APUs of the PlayStation 4,[][]Xbox One,[][]PlayStation 4 Pro,[][][]Xbox One S,[] and Xbox One X.[][] Jaguar would be later followed by the Puma microarchitecture in []

ARM architecture-based designs[edit]

In , AMD announced it was working on an ARM architecture products, both as a semi-custom product and server product.[][][] The initial server product was announced as the Opteron A in , and 8-core Cortex-A57 based ARMv8-ASoC,[][] and was expected to be followed by an APU incorporating a Graphic Core Next GPU.[] However, the Opteron A was not released until , with the delay attributed to adding software support.[] The A was also criticized for not having support from major vendors upon its release.[][][]

In , AMD also announced the K12 custom core for release in [] While being ARMv8-Ainstruction set architecture compliant, the K12 is expected to be entirely custom designed targeting server, embedded, and semi-custom markets. While ARM architecture development continued, products based on K12 were subsequently delayed with no release planned, in preference to the development of AMD's x86 based Zen microarchitecture.[][]

Zen based CPUs and APUs[edit]

Main article: Zen (microarchitecture)

Zen is a new architecture for x based Ryzen series CPUs and APUs, introduced in by AMD and built from the ground up by a team led by Jim Keller, beginning with his arrival in , and taping out before his departure in September One of AMD's primary goals with Zen was an IPC increase of at least 40%, however in February AMD announced that they had actually achieved a 52% increase.[][failed verification] Processors made on the Zen architecture are built on the 14&#;nm FinFET node and have a renewed focus on single-core performance and HSA compatibility.[] Previous processors from AMD were either built in the 32&#;nm process ("Bulldozer" and "Piledriver" CPUs) or the 28&#;nm process ("Steamroller" and "Excavator" APUs). Because of this, Zen is much more energy efficient. The Zen architecture is the first to encompass CPUs and APUs from AMD built for a single socket (Socket AM4). Also new for this architecture is the implementation of simultaneous multithreading (SMT) technology, something Intel has had for years on some of their processors with their proprietary Hyper-Threading implementation of SMT. This is a departure from the "Clustered MultiThreading" design introduced with the Bulldozer architecture. Zen also has support for DDR4 memory. AMD released the Zen-based high-end Ryzen 7 "Summit Ridge" series CPUs on March 2, ,[] mid-range Ryzen 5 series CPUs on April 11, , and entry level Ryzen 3 series CPUs on July 27, [] AMD later released the Epyc line of Zen derived server processors for 1P and 2P systems.[] In October , AMD released Zen based APUs as Ryzen Mobile, incorporating Vega graphics cores.[] In January AMD has announced their new lineup plans, with Ryzen 2.[] AMD launched CPUs with the 12nm Zen+[] microarchitecture in April , following up with the 7nm Zen 2 microarchitecture in June , including an update to the Epyc line with new processors using the Zen 2 microarchitecture in August , and Zen 3 slated for release in Q3 As of , AMD's Ryzen processors were reported to outsell Intel's consumer desktop processors.[] At CES AMD announced their Ryzen Mobile , as the first 7&#;nm x86 mobile processor,[vague] the first 7&#;nm 8-core (also thread) high performance mobile processor, and the first 8-core (also thread) processor for ultrathin laptops.[] This generation is still based on the Zen 2 architecture. In October AMD announced their Zen 3 CPU.[] On PassMark's Single thread performance test the Ryzen 5 x bested all other CPUs besides the Ryzen 9 X.[]

Both the PlayStation 5 and the Xbox Series X and Series S use chips based on the Zen 2 microarchitecture, with proprietary tweaks and different configurations in each system's implementation than AMD sells in its own commercially available APUs.[][]

Graphics products and GPUs[edit]

ATI prior to AMD acquisition[edit]

Main article: ATI Technologies

Lee Ka Lau,[] Francis Lau, Benny Lau, and Kwok Yuen Ho[] founded ATI in as Array Technology Inc.[] Working primarily in the OEM field, ATI produced integrated graphics cards for PC manufacturers such as IBM and Commodore. By , ATI had grown into an independent graphics-card retailer, introducing EGA Wonder and VGA Wonder card product lines that year.[] In the early nineties, they released products able to process graphics without the CPU: in May , the Mach8, in the Mach32, which offered improved memory bandwidth and GUI acceleration. ATI Technologies Inc. went public in , with shares listed on NASDAQ and on the Toronto Stock Exchange.

ATI's former Silicon Valley office
ATI "Graphics Solution Rev 3" from /, supporting Herculesgraphics. As the PCBreveals, the layout dates from , whereas the marking on the central chip CWAsays ""—meaning that chip was manufactured in week 39, Notice UME CRT controller. This card uses the ISA 8-bit interface.
ATI VGA Wonder with KB RAM

In , the Mach64 accelerator debuted, powering the Graphics Xpression and Graphics Pro Turbo, offering hardware support for YUV-to-RGBcolor space conversion in addition to hardware zoom; early techniques of hardware-based video acceleration.

ATI introduced its first combination of 2D and 3D accelerator under the name 3D Rage. This chip was based on the Mach 64, but it featured elemental 3D acceleration. The ATI Rage line powered almost the entire range of ATI graphics products. In particular, the Rage Pro was one of the first viable 2D-plus-3D alternatives to 3dfx's 3D-only Voodoo chipset. 3D acceleration in the Rage line advanced from the basic functionality within the initial 3D Rage to a more advanced DirectX accelerator in Rage

The All-in-Wonder product line, introduced in , was the first combination of integrated graphics chip with TV tuner card and the first chip that enabled display of computer graphics on a TV set.[] The cards featured 3D acceleration powered by ATI's 3D Rage II, bit 2D performance, TV-quality video acceleration, analog video capture, TV tuner functionality, flicker-free TV-out and stereo TV audio reception.

ATI entered the mobile computing sector by introducing 3D-graphics acceleration to laptops in The Mobility product line had to meet requirements different from those of desktop PCs, such as minimized power usage, reduced heat output, TMDS output capabilities for laptop screens, and maximized integration. In , ATI acquired Tseng Labs's graphics assets, which included 40 engineers.

The Radeon line of graphics products was unveiled in The initial Radeon graphics processing unit offered an all-new design with DirectX 3D acceleration, video acceleration, and 2D acceleration. Technology developed for a specific Radeon generation could be built in varying levels of features and performance in order to provide products suited for the entire market range, from high-end to budget to mobile versions.

In , ATI acquired ArtX, which engineered the Flipper graphics chip used in the Nintendo GameCube game console. They also created a modified version of the chip (codenamed Hollywood) for the successor of the GameCube, the Wii. Microsoft contracted ATI to design the graphics core (codenamed Xenos) for the Xbox Later in , ATI acquired Terayon's cable modem silicon intellectual property, strengthening their lead in the consumer digital television market.[] K. Y. Ho remained as Chairman of the Board until he retired in November Dave Orton replaced him as the President and CEO of the organization.

On July 24, , a joint announcement revealed that Advanced Micro Devices would acquire ATI in a deal valued at $ billion.[] The acquisition consideration closed on October 25, ,[] and included over $2 billion financed from a loan and 56 million shares of AMD stock.[] ATI's operations became part of the AMD Graphics Product Group (GPG),[] and ATI's CEO Dave Orton became the Executive Vice President of Visual and Media Businesses at AMD until his resignation in [] The top-level management was reorganized with the Senior Vice President and General Manager, and the Senior Vice President and General Manager of Consumer Electronics Group, both of whom would report to the CEO of AMD.[] On 30 August , John Trikola announced that AMD would retire the ATI brand for its graphics chipsets in favor of the AMD name.[]

Radeon within AMD[edit]

Main article: Radeon

In , the ATI division of AMD released the TeraScale microarchitecture implementing a unified shader model. This design replaced the previous fixed-function hardware of previous graphics cards with multipurpose, programmable shaders. Initially released as part of the GPU for the Xbox , this technology would go on to be used in Radeon branded HD parts. Three generations of TeraScale would be designed and used in parts from to

Combined GPU and CPU divisions[edit]

In a restructuring, AMD merged the CPU and GPU divisions to support the company's APUs, which fused both graphics and general purpose processing.[][] In , AMD released the successor to TeraScale, Graphics Core Next (GCN).[] This new microarchitecture emphasized GPGPU compute capability in addition to graphics processing, with a particular aim of supporting heterogeneous computing on AMD's APUs. GCN's reduced instruction setISA allowed for significantly increased compute capability over TeraScale's very long instruction word ISA. Since GCN's introduction with the HD , five generations of the GCN architecture have been produced from through at least []

Radeon Technologies Group[edit]

Main article: Radeon Technologies Group

In September , AMD separated the graphics technology division of the company into an independent internal unit called the Radeon Technologies Group (RTG) headed by Raja Koduri.[] This gave the graphics division of AMD autonomy in product design and marketing.[][] The RTG then went on to create and release the Polaris and Vega microarchitectures released in and , respectively.[][] In particular the Vega, or 5th generation GCN, microarchitecture includes a number of major revisions to improve performance and compute capabilities.[][]

In November , Raja Koduri left RTG[] and CEO and President Lisa Su took his position. In January , it was reported that two industry veterans joined RTG, namely Mike Rayfield as senior vice president and general manager of RTG, and David Wang as senior vice president of engineering for RTG.[] In January , AMD announced that its second generation RDNA graphics architecture was in development, with the aim of competing with the Nvidia RTX graphics products for performance leadership. In October , AMD announced their new RX series[] series GPUs, their first high end product based on RDNA2 and capable of handling ray-tracing natively, aiming to challenge Nvidia's RTX GPUs.

Semi-custom and game console products[edit]

In , AMD's then CEO Rory Read began a program to offer semi-custom designs.[][] Rather than AMD simply designing and offering a single product, potential customers could work with AMD to design a custom chip based on AMD's intellectual property. Customers pay a non-recurring engineering fee for design and development, and a purchase price for the resulting semi-custom products. In particular, AMD noted their unique position of offering both x86 and graphics intellectual property. These semi-custom designs would have design wins as the APUs in the PlayStation 4 and Xbox One and the subsequent PlayStation 4 Pro, Xbox One S, Xbox One X, Xbox Series and PlayStation 5.[][][][][][] Financially, these semi-custom products would represent a majority of the company's revenue in [][] In November , AMD and Intel announced that Intel would market a product combining in a single package an Intel Core CPU, a semi-custom AMD Radeon GPU, and HBM2 memory.[]

Other hardware[edit]

AMD motherboard chipsets[edit]

See also: Comparison of AMD chipsets

Before the launch of Athlon 64 processors in , AMD designed chipsets for their processors spanning the K6 and K7 processor generations. The chipsets include the AMD, AMD, and the AMD chipsets. The situation changed in with the release of Athlon 64 processors, and AMD chose not to further design its own chipsets for its desktop processors while opening the desktop platform to allow other firms to design chipsets. This was the "Open Platform Management Architecture" with ATI, VIA and SiS developing their own chipset for Athlon 64 processors and later Athlon 64 X2 and Athlon 64 FX processors, including the Quad FX platform chipset from Nvidia.

The initiative went further with the release of Opteron server processors as AMD stopped the design of server chipsets in after releasing the AMD chipset, and again opened the server platform for firms to develop chipsets for Opteron processors. As of today,[when?] Nvidia and Broadcom are the sole designing firms of server chipsets for Opteron processors.

As the company completed the acquisition of ATI Technologies in , the firm gained the ATI design team for chipsets which previously designed the Radeon Xpress and the Radeon Xpress chipsets. AMD then renamed the chipsets for AMD processors under AMD branding (for instance, the CrossFire Xpress chipset was renamed as AMD X CrossFire chipset). In February , AMD announced the first AMD-branded chipset since with the release of the AMD G chipset (previously under the development codename RS), targeted at mainstream IGP computing. It was the industry's first to implement a HDMI port on motherboards, shipping for more than a million units. While ATI had aimed at releasing an Intel IGP chipset, the plan was scrapped and the inventories of Radeon Xpress (codenamed RS, sold under ATI brand) was sold to two OEMs, Abit and ASRock. Although AMD stated the firm would still produce Intel chipsets, Intel had not granted the license of MHz FSB to ATI.

On November 15, , AMD announced a new chipset series portfolio, the AMD 7-Series chipsets, covering from the enthusiast multi-graphics segment to the value IGP segment, to replace the AMD // chipsets and AMD series chipsets, marking AMD's first enthusiast multi-graphics chipset. Discrete graphics chipsets were launched on November 15, , as part of the codenamed Spider desktop platform, and IGP chipsets were launched at a later time in spring as part of the codenamed Cartwheel platform.

AMD returned to the server chipsets market with the AMD S series server chipsets. It includes support for up to six SATA Gbit/s ports, the C6 power state, which is featured in Fusion processors and AHCI with SATA FIS–based switching support. This is a chipset family supporting Phenom processors and Quad FX enthusiast platform (FX), IGP (GX).

With the advent of AMD's APUs in , traditional northbridge features such as the connection to graphics and the PCI Express controller were incorporated into the APU die. Accordingly, APUs were connected to a single chip chipset, renamed the Fusion Controller Hub (FCH), which primarily provided southbridge functionality.[]

AMD released new chipsets in to support the release of their new Ryzen products. As the Zen microarchitecture already includes much of the northbridge connectivity, the AM4 based chipsets primarily varied in the number of additional PCI Express lanes, USB connections, and SATA connections available.[] These AM4 chipsets were designed in conjunction with ASMedia.[]

Embedded products[edit]

Embedded CPUs[edit]

Main articles: Alchemy (processor) and Geode (processor)

In February , AMD acquired Alchemy Semiconductor for its Alchemy line of MIPS processors for the hand-held and portable media player markets.[] On June 13, , AMD officially announced that the line was to be transferred to Raza Microelectronics, Inc., a designer of MIPS processors for embedded applications.[]

In August , AMD also purchased the Geode business which was originally the CyrixMediaGX from National Semiconductor to augment its existing line of embedded x86 processor products.[] During the second quarter of , it launched new low-power Geode NX processors based on the K7 Thoroughbred architecture with speeds of fanless processors MHz and 1 GHz, and GHz processor with fan, of TDP 25&#;W. This technology is used in a variety of embedded systems (Casino slot machines and customer kiosks for instance), several UMPC designs in Asia markets, as well as the OLPCXO-1 computer, an inexpensive laptop computer intended to be distributed to children in developing countries around the world.[] The Geode LX processor was announced in and is said will continue to be available through [needs update]

AMD has also introduced bit processors into its embedded product line starting with the AMD Opteron processor. Leveraging the high throughput enabled through HyperTransport and the Direct Connect Architecture these server-class processors have been targeted at high-end telecom and storage applications. In , AMD added the AMD Athlon, AMD Turion, and Mobile AMD Sempron processors to its embedded product line. Leveraging the same bit instruction set and Direct Connect Architecture as the AMD Opteron but at lower power levels, these processors were well suited to a variety of traditional embedded applications. Throughout and into , AMD has continued to add both single-core Mobile AMD Sempron and AMD Athlon processors and dual-core AMD Athlon X2 and AMD Turion processors to its embedded product line and now offers embedded bit solutions starting with 8W TDP Mobile AMD Sempron and AMD Athlon processors for fan-less designs up to multi-processor systems leveraging multi-core AMD Opteron processors all supporting longer than standard availability.[]

The ATI acquisition in included the Imageon and Xilleon product lines. In late , the entire handheld division was sold off to Qualcomm, who have since produced the Adreno series.[] Also in , the Xilleon division was sold to Broadcom.[][]

In April , AMD announced the release of the MT integrated graphics chipset for embedded designs. This enabled AMD to offer complete processor and chipset solutions targeted at embedded applications requiring high-performance 3D and video such as emerging digital signage, kiosk, and Point of Sale applications. The MT was followed by the ME specifically for embedded applications which removed the TV output, which required Macrovision licensing for OEMs, and enabled native support for dual TMDS outputs, enabling dual independent DVI interfaces.[citation needed][]

In January , AMD announced the AMD Embedded G-Series Accelerated Processing Unit.[][] This was the first APU for embedded applications. These were followed by updates in and [][]

In May , AMD Announced the AMD Embedded R-Series Accelerated Processing Unit.[] This family of products incorporates the Bulldozer CPU architecture, and Discrete-class Radeon HD G Series graphics. This was followed by a system on a chip (SoC) version in which offered a faster CPU and faster graphics, with support for DDR4 SDRAM memory.[][]

Embedded graphics[edit]

AMD builds graphic processors for use in embedded systems. They can be found in anything from casinos to healthcare, with a large portion of products being used in industrial machines.[] These products include a complete graphics processing device in a compact multi-chip module including RAM and the GPU.[] ATI began offering embedded GPUs with the E in Since that time AMD has released regular updates to their embedded GPU lineup in , , , and ; reflecting improvements in their GPU technology.[][][][]

Current product lines[edit]

CPU and APU products[edit]

AMD's portfolio of CPUs and APUs as of [update]

  • Athlon – brand of entry level CPUs (Excavator) and APUs (Ryzen)
  • A-seriesExcavator class consumer desktop and laptop APUs
  • G-seriesExcavator and Jaguar class low power embedded APUs
  • Ryzen – brand of consumer CPUs and APUs
  • Ryzen Threadripper – brand of prosumer/professional CPUs
  • R-seriesExcavator class high performance embedded APUs
  • Epyc – brand of server CPUs
  • Opteron – brand of microserver APUs[]

Graphics products[edit]

AMD's portfolio of dedicated graphics processors as of [update]

  • Radeon – brand for consumer line of graphics cards; the brand name originated with ATI.
    • Mobility Radeon offers power-optimized versions of Radeon graphics chips for use in laptops.
  • Radeon Pro – Workstation Graphics card brand. Successor to the FirePro brand.
  • Radeon Instinct – brand of server and workstation targeted machine learning and GPGPU products

Radeon-branded products[edit]


In , AMD began selling Radeon branded DDR3 SDRAM to support the higher bandwidth needs of AMD's APUs.[] While the RAM is sold by AMD, it was manufactured by Patriot Memory and VisionTek. This was later followed by higher speeds of gaming oriented DDR3 memory in [] Radeon branded DDR4 SDRAM memory was released in , despite no AMD CPUs or APUs supporting DDR4 at the time.[] AMD noted in that these products are "mostly distributed in Eastern Europe" and that it continues to be active in the business.[]

Solid-state drives[edit]

AMD announced in it would sell Radeon branded solid-state drives manufactured by OCZ with capacities up to GB and using the SATA interface.[] This was followed in by updated drives of up to GB,[] with M.2/NVMe drives expected later.[]


CPU technologies[edit]

As of [update] technologies found in AMD CPU/APU and other products include:

Graphics technologies[edit]

As of [update] technologies found in AMD GPU products include:


  • AMD Catalyst is a collection of proprietarydevice driver software available for Microsoft Windows and Linux.
  • AMDGPU is AMD's open sourcedevice driver supporting the GCN architecture, available for Linux.
  • AOCC is AMD's optimizing C/C++ compiler based on LLVM and available for Linux.
  • AMDuProf is AMD's CPU performance and Power profiling tool suite, available for Linux and Windows.
  • AMD develops the AMD CodeXL tool suite which includes a GPU debugger, a GPU profiler, and an OpenCL static kernel analyzer. CodeXL is freely available at GPUOpen website.
  • AMD Stream SDK and AMD APP SDK (Accelerated Parallel Processing) enable AMD graphics processing cores (GPU), working in concert with the system's x86 cores (CPU), to execute heterogeneously to accelerate many applications beyond just graphics.[]
  • AMD has also taken an active part in developing coreboot, an open-source project aimed at replacing the proprietary BIOS firmware. This cooperation ceased in , but AMD has indicated recently[when?] that it is considering releasing source code so that Ryzen can be compatible with coreboot in the future.[]
  • Other AMD software includes the AMD Core Math Library, and open-source software including the AMD Performance Library.
  • AMD contributes to open source projects, including working with Sun Microsystems to enhance OpenSolaris and Sun xVM on the AMD platform.[] AMD also maintains its own Open64 compiler distribution and contributes its changes back to the community.[]
  • In , AMD released the low-level programming specifications for its GPUs, and works with the X.Org Foundation to develop drivers for AMD graphics cards.[][]
  • Extensions for software parallelism (xSP), aimed at speeding up programs to enable multi-threaded and multi-core processing, announced in Technology Analyst Day One of the initiatives being discussed since August is the Light Weight Profiling (LWP), providing internal hardware monitor with runtimes, to observe information about executing process and help the re-design of software to be optimized with multi-core and even multi-threaded programs. Another one is the extension of Streaming SIMD Extension (SSE) instruction set, the SSE5.
  • Codenamed SIMFIRE – interoperability testing tool for the Desktop and mobile Architecture for System Hardware (DASH) open architecture.

Production and fabrication[edit]

Main article: GlobalFoundries

Previously, AMD produced its chips at company-owned semiconductor foundries. AMD pursued a strategy of collaboration with other semiconductor manufacturers IBM and Motorola to co-develop production technologies.[][] AMD's founder Jerry Sanders termed this the "Virtual Gorilla" strategy to compete with Intel's significantly greater investments in fabrication.[]

In , AMD spun off its chip foundries into an independent company named GlobalFoundries.[] This break-up of the company was attributed to the increasing costs of each process node. The Emirate of Abu Dhabi purchased the newly created company through its subsidiary Advanced Technology Investment Company (ATIC), purchasing the final stake from AMD in []

With the spin-off of its foundries, AMD became a fabless semiconductor manufacturer, designing products to be produced at for-hire foundries. Part of the GlobalFoundries spin-off included an agreement with AMD to produce some number of products at GlobalFoundries.[] Both prior to the spin-off and after AMD has pursued production with other foundries including TSMC and Samsung.[][] It has been argued that this would reduce risk for AMD by decreasing dependence on any one foundry which has caused issues in the past.[][]

In , AMD started shifting the production of their CPUs and GPUs to TSMC, following GlobalFoundries' announcement that they were halting development of their 7 nm process.[] AMD revised their wafer purchase requirement with GlobalFoundries in , allowing AMD to freely choose foundries for 7&#;nm nodes and below, while maintaining purchase agreements for 12&#;nm and above through []

Corporate affairs[edit]


AMD utilizes strategic industry partnerships to further its business interests as well as to rival Intel's dominance and resources:[][][]

  • A partnership between AMD and Alpha Processor Inc. developed HyperTransport, a point-to-point interconnect standard which was turned over to an industry standards body for finalization.[] It is now used in modern motherboards that are compatible with AMD processors.
  • AMD also formed a strategic partnership with IBM, under which AMD gained silicon on insulator (SOI) manufacturing technology, and detailed advice on 90 nm implementation. AMD announced that the partnership would extend to for 32 nm and 22 nm fabrication-related technologies.[]
  • To facilitate processor distribution and sales, AMD is loosely partnered with end-user companies, such as HP, Dell, Asus, Acer, and Microsoft.[]
  • In , AMD established a 50–50 partnership with Fujitsu called FASL, and merged into a new company called FASL LLC in The joint venture went public under the name Spansion and ticker symbol SPSN in December , with AMD shares dropping 37%. AMD no longer directly participates in the Flash memory devices market now as AMD entered into a non-competition agreement on December 21, , with Fujitsu and Spansion, pursuant to which it agreed not to directly or indirectly engage in a business that manufactures or supplies standalone semiconductor devices (including single-chip, multiple-chip or system devices) containing only Flash memory.[]
  • On May 18, , Dell announced that it would roll out new servers based on AMD's Opteron chips by year's end, thus ending an exclusive relationship with Intel.[] In September , Dell began offering AMD Athlon X2 chips in their desktop lineup.
  • In June , HP announced new business and consumer notebooks equipped with the latest versions of AMD APUs&#;&#; accelerated processing units. AMD will power HP's Intel-based business notebooks as well.[]
  • In the spring of , AMD announced that it would be powering all three major next-generation consoles.[] The Xbox One and SonyPlayStation 4 are both powered by a custom-built AMD APU, and the NintendoWii U is powered by an AMD GPU.[] According to AMD, having their processors in all three of these consoles will greatly assist developers with cross-platform development to competing consoles and PCs as well as increased support for their products across the board.[]
  • AMD has entered into an agreement with Hindustan Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation (HSMC) for the production of AMD products in India.[]
  • AMD is a founding member of the HSA Foundation which aims to ease the use of a Heterogeneous System Architecture. A Heterogeneous System Architecture is intended to use both central processing units and graphics processors to complete computational tasks.[]
  • AMD announced in that it was creating a joint venture to produce x86 server chips for the Chinese market.[]
  • On May 7, , it was reported that the U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Cray Inc., are working in collaboration with AMD to develop the Frontier exascale supercomputer. Featuring the AMD Epyc CPUs and Radeon GPUs, the supercomputer is set to produce more than exaflops (peak double-precision) in computing performance. It is expected to debut sometime in []
  • On March 5, , it was announced that the U.S. Department of Energy, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and HPE are working in collaboration with AMD to develop the El Capitan exascale supercomputer. Featuring the AMD Epyc CPUs and Radeon GPUs, the supercomputer is set to produce more than 2 exaflops (peak double-precision) in computing performance. It is expected to debut in []
  • In the summer of , it was reported that AMD would be powering the next-generation console offerings from Microsoft and Sony.[]

Litigation with Intel[edit]

See also: Intel Corp. v. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. and Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. v. Intel Corp.

AMD processor with Intel logo

AMD has a long history of litigation with former (and current) partner and x86 creator Intel.[][][]

  • In , Intel broke an agreement it had with AMD to allow them to produce Intel's micro-chips for IBM; AMD filed for arbitration in and the arbitrator decided in AMD's favor in Intel disputed this, and the case ended up in the Supreme Court of California. In , that court upheld the arbitrator's decision and awarded damages for breach of contract.
  • In , Intel brought a copyright infringement action alleging illegal use of its microcode. The case ended in with a jury finding for AMD and its right to use Intel's microcode in its microprocessors through the generation.
  • In , Intel filed suit against AMD and Cyrix Corp. for misuse of the term MMX. AMD and Intel settled, with AMD acknowledging MMX as a trademark owned by Intel, and with Intel granting AMD rights to market the AMD K6 MMX processor.
  • In , following an investigation, the Japan Federal Trade Commission found Intel guilty of a number of violations. On June 27, , AMD won an antitrust suit against Intel in Japan, and on the same day, AMD filed a broad antitrust complaint against Intel in the U.S. Federal District Court in Delaware. The complaint alleges systematic use of secret rebates, special discounts, threats, and other means used by Intel to lock AMD processors out of the global market. Since the start of this action, the court has issued subpoenas to major computer manufacturers including Acer, Dell, Lenovo, HP and Toshiba.
  • In November , Intel agreed to pay AMD $bn and renew a five-year patent cross-licensing agreement as part of a deal to settle all outstanding legal disputes between them.[]

Guinness World Record achievement[edit]

  • On August 31, , in Austin, Texas, AMD achieved a Guinness World Record for the "Highest frequency of a computer processor": &#;GHz.[] The company ran an 8-core FX processor with only one active module (two cores), and cooled with liquid helium.[] The previous record was &#;GHz, with an Intel Celeron (one core).
  • On November 1, , reported that Andre Yang, an overclocker from Taiwan, used an FX to set another record: &#;GHz.[]
  • On November 19, , Andre Yang used an FX to set another record: &#;GHz.[]

Corporate social responsibility[edit]

Other initiatives[edit]

  • 50x15, digital inclusion, with targeted 50% of world population to be connected through Internet via affordable computers by the year of
  • The Green Grid,[] founded by AMD together with other founders, such as IBM, Sun and Microsoft, to seek lower power consumption for grids.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ abcde"AMD Reports Fourth Quarter and Annual Financial Results". Advanced Micro Devices. January 26, Retrieved January 28,
  2. ^The other founding members were Ed Turney, John Carey, Sven Simonsen, Jack Gifford and three members from Gifford's team: Frank Botte, Jim Giles, and Larry Stenger.
  3. ^Rodengen, p.
  4. ^"Fairchild's Offspring". Business Week. August 25, p.
  5. ^Mueller, Scott. Upgrading and Repairing PCs. Que Publishing, p. 6.
  6. ^Malone, Michael S."Silicon Insider: AMD-Intel Feud Continues". ABC News. April 24,
  7. ^Rodengen, p.
  8. ^ abcdPederson, Jay P. International Directory of Company Histories, Vol. 30Archived July 19, , at the Wayback Machine. St. James Press,
  9. ^Rodengen, p.
  10. ^Rodengen, pp. 37–
  11. ^ abcSinger, Graham. "The Rise and Fall of AMD". TechSpot. November 21,
  12. ^Rodengen, pp. 35, 38, 41,
  13. ^ abcAMD Corporation. Silicon Valley Historical Association.
  14. ^Rodengen, pp. 36,
  15. ^ abcLojek, Bo. History of Semiconductor Engineering. Springer Science & Business Media, p.
  16. ^ abcdOur History.
  17. ^ abRodengen, p.
  18. ^Electronic Design, Volume 19, Part 3. Hayden Publishing Company, p.
  19. ^Rodengen, pp. 42,
  20. ^Rodengen, p.
  21. ^

Amd with amd gpu cpu

AMD’s RX GPUs to Boost Perf With Ryzen CPUs via Smart Memory Access

AMD’s Radeon RX series launch revealed one exciting and somewhat unexpected new technology - AMD’s Radeon RX GPUs will now operate in tandem with AMD’s Ryzen processors (with the caveat that you need a series motherboard) through a new Smart Access Memory feature that will boost gaming performance by enhancing data transfer between the CPU and GPU. 

The announcement brings one of AMD’s key advantages into full focus: AMD is the only company that produces x86 processors and has a line of discrete gaming GPUs currently on the market. That affords some advantages, specifically in terms of optimizing both the GPU and CPU to offer the best possible performance when they operate in tandem. But now AMD is taking the concept to an entirely new level with its Smart Access Memory

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AMD isn’t sharing the new tech's full details, but we do know the broad strokes. By enabling the Smart Memory Access feature in the Radeon RX’s vBIOS and the motherboard BIOS, the CPU and GPU will gain unprecedented full access to each other’s memory, which maximizes data transfer performance between the CPU and the GPU’s on-card 16GB of VRAM. 

As a basic explainer (we’ll learn more details at an upcoming Tech Day), AMD says that the CPU and GPU are usually constrained to a MB ‘aperture’ for data transfers. That limits game developers and requires frequent trips between the CPU and main memory if the data set exceeds that size, causing inefficiencies and capping performance. Smart Access Memory removes that limitation, thus boosting performance due to faster data transfer speeds between the CPU and GPU.

It’s a simple equation - moving data always costs more energy than actually performing compute operations against it, so streamlining the process results in improved performance and higher power efficiency. 

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Pairing this enhanced data transfer performance with the new MB Infinity Cache could yield a massive boost to throughput between the CPU and GPU. AMD also isn’t sharing the fine-grained details of its Infinity Cache, but we do know that the MB cache essentially serves as a large on-die frame buffer that is transparent to developers. It isn’t clear if the new cache is implemented in an L3 or L4-esque manner, but AMD does say the high-speed, high-density memory holds more data close to the compute units, thus increasing hit rates, which then boosts performance-per-clock. 

The new Infinity Cache leverages the GPU's redesigned data paths to aggressively maximize performance while minimizing data movement and power within the GPU. Overall, AMD says the Infinity Cache equates to a 10% increase in power efficiency and doubles the bandwidth (% increase) at lower power than traditional memory.

Naturally, pairing that large cache and using it as a landing pad for data flowing in from the CPU via the Smart Memory Access feature will obviously yield big throughput benefits. Surprisingly, AMD tells us that the Infinity Cache is based on the Zen CPU’s L3 cache design, which means it comes as the fruits of AMD’s cross-pollination between its CPU and GPU teams. AMD feels the Infinity Cache is a better engineering investment than going with a more expensive solution, like using wider and faster memory (i.e., HBM memories).

AMD says the Infinity Cache boosts performance-per-clock scaling as frequency increases largely because the GPU is less constrained by external memory bandwidth limits. 

Unlocking better performance scaling with higher clock speeds means one big thing to enthusiasts: Bigger gains from overclocking, which is where AMD’s new Rage Mode auto-overclocking software comes in. 

AMD sees this new Smart Access Memory and Infinity Cache tech as satisfying the increasing needs for increased data throughput due to the shift to larger resolutions, like 4K gaming. The Infinity Cache also boosts ray tracing performance considerably, as more of the working data set is kept closer to the compute units to ‘feed the beast,’ as it were.

AMD’s Radeon RX will also support the DirectStorage API, which reduces game load times, and it’s possible that explosive latency-reducing storage tech could benefit from the Smart Memory Access feature, too, giving AMD yet another advantage. But we’ll have to wait to learn more details.

AMD says that game developers will have to optimize for the Smart Memory Access feature, which means it could take six to twelve months before we see games optimized for the new tech. The company does expect to benefit from some of the shared performance tuning efforts between PC and the new consoles, namely the Sony PS5 and Microsoft Xbox Series X. 

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Naturally, developer support will hinge on how easy it is to enable the new feature, but if past indicators are any signal, it could actually simplify coding. AMD’s new Smart Access Memory feels very similar to AMD’s Infinity Cache on its enterprise products that enables cache coherency between the CPU and GPU. Leveraging cache coherency, like the company does with its Ryzen APUs, unifies the data and provides a "simple on-ramp to CPU+GPU for all codes." 

AMD outlined that tech in a presentation last year, saying that shared memory allows the GPU to access the same memory the CPU uses, thus reducing and simplifying the software stack. AMD also provided some examples of the code required to use a GPU without unified memory, while accommodating a unified memory architecture actually alleviates much of the coding burden, which you can read about here. It will be interesting to learn if there are any similarities between the two approaches.  

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You’ll need three ingredients to unlock the Smart Memory Access feature: A Radeon RX GPU (all models support it), a Ryzen processor, and a standard series motherboard. We asked AMD if the tech will come to its previous-gen CPUs and motherboards, but the company merely tells us that it would provide updates at a future time if there is more enablement.  

In the end, whether or not this tech results in real-world advantages remains to be seen: Developers will have to support Smart Memory Access. We still have a lot to learn from AMD about this new tech, and if there are any parallels between other approaches like Nvidia's NVLink. However, it does show that AMD's inherent advantage of producing both CPUs and gaming GPUs gives it a leg up on the competition, enabling features that its competitors, like Nvidia, probably can't match in the consumer market. 

Paul Alcorn is the Deputy Managing Editor for Tom's Hardware US. He writes news and reviews on CPUs, storage and enterprise hardware.

Does Ryzen Work Better With AMD GPUs? [Part 1]

List of AMD graphics processing units

Wikipedia list article

The following is a list that contains general information about GPUs and video cards by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), including those by ATI Technologies before , based on official specifications in table form.

Field explanations[edit]

The headers in the table listed below describe the following:

  • Model – The marketing name for the GPU assigned by AMD/ATI. Note that ATI trademarks have been replaced by AMD trademarks starting with the Radeon HD series for desktop and AMD FirePro series for professional graphics.
  • Codename – The internal engineering codename for the GPU.
  • Launch – Date of release for the GPU.
  • Architecture – The microarchitecture used by the GPU.
  • Fab – Fabrication process. Average feature size of components of the GPU.
  • Transistors – Number of transistors on the die.
  • Die Size – Physical surface area of the die.
  • Core config – The layout of the graphics pipeline, in terms of functional units.
  • Core clock – The reference base and boost (if available) core clock frequency.
  • Fillrate
    • Pixel - The rate at which pixels can be rendered by the raster operators to a display. Measured in Pixels/s.
    • Texture - The rate at which textures can be mapped by the texture mapping units onto a polygon mesh. Measured in Texels/s.
  • Performance
    • Shader operations - How many operations the pixel shaders (or unified shaders in Direct3D 10 and newer GPUs) can perform. Measured in Operations/s.
    • Vertex operations - The amount of geometry operations that can be processed on the vertex shaders in one second (only applies to Direct3D c and older GPUs). Measured in Vertices/s.
  • Memory
    • Bus type – Type of memory bus utilized.
    • Bus width – Maximum bit width of the memory bus utilized.
    • Size – Size of the graphics memory.
    • Clock – The reference memory clock frequency.
    • Bandwidth – Maximum theoretical memory bandwidth based on bus type and width.
  • TDP (Thermal design power) – Maximum amount of heat generated by the GPU chip, measured in Watt.
  • TBP (Typical board power) – Typical power drawn by the total board, including power for the GPU chip and peripheral equipment, such as Voltage regulator module, memory, fans, etc., measured in Watt.
  • Bus interface – Bus by which the graphics processor is attached to the system (typically an expansion slot, such as PCI, AGP, or PCIe).
  • API support – Rendering and computing APIs supported by the GPU and driver.

Due to conventions changing over time, some numerical definitions such as core config, core clock, performance and memory should not be compared one-to-one across generations. The following tables are for reference use only, and do not reflect actual performance.

Video codec acceleration[edit]

Features Overview[edit]

The following table shows features of AMD's GPUs

  1. ^The Radeon Series has programmable pixel shaders, but do not fully comply with DirectX 8 or Pixel Shader See article on R's pixel shaders.
  2. ^R, R and R based cards do not fully comply with OpenGL 2+ as the hardware does not support all types of non-power of two (NPOT) textures.
  3. ^OpenGL 4+ compliance requires supporting FP64 shaders and these are emulated on some TeraScale chips using bit hardware.
  4. ^ abcThe UVD and VCE were replaced by the Video Core Next (VCN) ASIC in the Raven Ridge APU implementation of Vega.
  5. ^Video processing ASIC for video frame rate interpolation technique. In Windows it works as a DirectShow filter in your player. In Linux, there is no support on the part of drivers and / or community.
  6. ^ abTo play protected video content, it also requires card, operating system, driver, and application support. A compatible HDCP display is also needed for this. HDCP is mandatory for the output of certain audio formats, placing additional constraints on the multimedia setup.
  7. ^More displays may be supported with native DisplayPort connections, or splitting the maximum resolution between multiple monitors with active converters.
  8. ^ abDRM (Direct Rendering Manager) is a component of the Linux kernel. Support in this table refers to the most current version.

API Overview[edit]

The following table shows the graphics and compute APIs support across AMD GPU micro-architectures. Note that a branding series might include older generation chips.

  1. ^Radeon Series has programmable pixel shaders, but do not fully comply with DirectX 8 or Pixel Shader See article on R's pixel shaders.
  2. ^These series do not fully comply with OpenGL 2+ as the hardware does not support all types of non-power-of-two (NPOT) textures.
  3. ^OpenGL 4+ compliance requires supporting FP64 shaders and these are emulated on some TeraScale chips using bit hardware.


Desktop GPUs[edit]

Wonder series[edit]

Main article: ATI Wonder series

Model Launch Fab (nm) BusinterfaceMemory
Size (KiB) Bus type Bus width (bit)
Wonder MDA/CGA PC/XT 64 DRAM 8
Wonder EGA PC/XT
Wonder VGA , PC/XT, ISA ,
8, 16

Mach series[edit]

Main article: ATI Mach

Model Launch Fab (nm) Bus interface Memory
Size (KiB) Bus type Bus width (bit)
Mach 8 ISA, MCA
Mach 32 ISA, EISA, VLB

Mach 64 GX
Mach 64 VT (VT)
Mach 64 VT2 (VT2) EDO
Mach 64 VT4 (VT4) , EDO, SGRAM

Rage series[edit]

Main article: ATI Rage

Model Launch Fab (nm) Bus interface Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1FillrateMemory API compliance
MOperations/s MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MiB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit) Direct3D OpenGL
3D Rage April [16] PCI 40 40 40 40 40 0 2 EDO 64 None2
3D Rage II September AGP 1x (Rage IIc only), PCI 60 83 (66&#;MHz with EDO) 60 60 60 2, 4, 8 EDO, SGRAM, SDR
Rage Pro March AGP 1x, AGP 2x, PCI 75 75 75 75 75 4, 8, 16
Rage XL[17][18][19][20]August AGP 2x, PCI 83 83 83 83 8 SDR
Rage VR 80 8, 32
Rage GL 16, 32 SGRAM, SDR
Rage Pro August AGP 4x, PCI
Rage Ultra 16, 32, 64 SDR
Rage Fury MAXX October AGP 4x x2 32 x2 x2

1Pixel pipelines&#;: Vertex shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units
2 OpenGL (Generic 2D) is provided through software implementations.

Radeon series[edit]

Main article: Radeon R series

  • All models include Direct3D and OpenGL
  • The R cards were originally launched without any numbering; the numbering was later added in rebrands.
Model Launch Code nameFab (nm) Bus interface Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1FillrateMemory
MOperations/s MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MiB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit)
Radeon VE/ Feb 19, RV (piglet) AGP 4x, PCI 0 32, 64 DDR 64
Radeon LE/ (OEM) May 1, Rage 6 / R AGP 4x 32
Radeon SDR/ June 1, AGP 4x, PCI SDR
Radeon DDR/ April 1, AGP 4x /A/A/A/A/A/A32, 64 /ADDR
Radeon DDR/ VIVO AGP 4x, PCI /B/B/B/B/B/B64 /B
Radeon LE N/A RV&#;(morpheus) 32, 64
Radeon Aug 14, RV&#;(morpheus) 32, 64, [21]
Model Launch Code name Fab (nm) Bus interface Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1MOperations/s MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MiB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit)

1Pixel pipelines&#;: Vertex shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units

A First number indicates cards with 32MB of memory. Second number indicates cards with 64MB of memory.
B First number indicates OEM cards. Second number indicates Retail cards.

IGP (3xx series)[edit]

  • All models are manufactured with a &#;nm fabrication process
  • All models include Direct3D and OpenGL
  • Based on the Radeon VE
Model Launch Code name Bus interface Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1FillrateMemory
MOperations/s MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MiB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit)
Radeon May A3 FSB , 0 Un&#;known , DDR 64
Radeon RSL (wilma) Un&#;known
Radeon RS (wilma) Un&#;known

1Pixel pipelines&#;: Vertex shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units

Radeon & series[edit]

Main article: Radeon R series

  • All models are manufactured with a &#;nm fabrication process
  • All models include Direct3D and OpenGL
Model Launch Code name Bus interface Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1FillrateMemory
MOperations/s MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MiB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit)
Radeon Aug 14, R (chaplin) AGP 4x 64, DDR
Radeon LE Feb 4, 8
Radeon Aug 1, RV (iris) 50
Radeon Pro
Radeon April 1, R (chaplin)


Radeon RV (argus) AGP 8x, PCI 64, ,
Radeon SE March 1, 50 64
Radeon March 1, 60 , 64,
Radeon SE AGP 8x 64

1Pixel shaders&#;: Vertex shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units

IGP ( series)[edit]

  • All models are manufactured with a &#;nm fabrication process
  • All models include Direct3D and OpenGL
  • Based on the Radeon
Model Launch Code name Bus interface Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1FillrateMemory
MOperations/s MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MiB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit)
Radeon RC FSB 75 16 - DDR 64
Radeon RS (superman)
Radeon Pro May 3, RS

1Pixel shaders&#;: Vertex shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units

Radeon R series[edit]

AGP ( series, X series)[edit]

Main article: Radeon R series

  • All models include Direct3D and OpenGL
Model Launch Code name Fab (nm) Bus interface Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1FillrateMemory
MOperations/s MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MiB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit)
Radeon Oct. 24, R (Khan) AGP 8x 64,


Radeon Pro
Radeon RV (Shivah) 64, ,
Radeon SE 64
Radeon ,
Radeon Pro Mar. 6,
Radeon SE 64, , 64
Radeon XT Sept. 30, RV ,
Radeon TX (Medion OEM) R (Khan)
Radeon TX (Dell OEM)
Radeon Oct. 24,
Radeon Pro July 18,
Radeon R
Radeon XL
Radeon XXL[22]Oct. 1, R [22]
Radeon Pro (R) Mar. 1, [23]R ( MB)

( MB)



Radeon Pro (R) R DDR
Radeon SE[24]Mar. 1, [25]R











Radeon XT Sept. 9, R
Radeon X AGP Dec. 7, RV (Shivah) ,
Model Launch Code name Fab (nm) Bus interface Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1MOperations/s MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MiB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit)

1Pixel shaders&#;: Vertex Shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units
2 The bit version of the &#;SE when unlocked to 8-pixel pipelines with third party driver modifications should function close to a full &#;Pro.[26]

PCI-E (X3xx, X5xx, X6xx, X series)[edit]

Main article: Radeon R series

  • All models include Direct3D and OpenGL
  • All models use a PCI-E x16 interface
Model Launch Code name Fab (nm) Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1FillrateMemory
MOperations/s MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MiB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit)
Radeon X Sept. 1, RV (hari) 64, DDR
Radeon X LE
Radeon X SE 64
Radeon X SE HyperMemory April 4, 32, 64, onboard + up to system
Radeon X June 21, , 8



Radeon X HyperMemory , onboard + up to system
Radeon X SE Sept. 1, , 4 64
Radeon X 8
Radeon X Pro (RV)
Radeon X Pro (RV) RV (vishnu)
Radeon X XT
Radeon X (RV) Dec. 7, RV (hari) DDR2 64

1Pixel shaders&#;: Vertex Shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units

IGP (X2xx, 11xx series)[edit]

Main article: Radeon R series

  • All models include Direct3D and OpenGL
  • Based on the Radeon X
Model Launch Code name Fab (nm) Bus interface Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1FillrateMemory
MOperations/s MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MiB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit)
Radeon Xpress X Nov. 8, RS (metallo) HT (DDR), (sideport) 0 system + 16 sideport system + sideport DDR 64,
Radeon Xpress (originally Xpress ) RS (grayskull) HT (DDR), (DDR2) system system DDR, DDR2
Radeon Xpress (originally Xpress for Intel) March 11, (Intel), May 23, (AMD) RC, RC, RS, RS, RS HT, FSB

1Pixel shaders&#;: Vertex Shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units

Radeon X & X series[edit]

AGP (X7xx, X8xx)[edit]

Main article: Radeon R series

  • All models include AGP 8x
  • All models include Direct3D b and OpenGL
Model Launch Code name Fab (nm) Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1FillrateMemory
MOperations/s MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit)
Radeon X March RV (alto) , DDR
Radeon X Pro March 1, GDDR3
Radeon X SE Oct. R (loki)
Radeon X GT Dec. 6,
Radeon X Dec. R
Radeon X GTO Dec. 6, R (loki)
Radeon X Pro May 5,
Radeon X XL Feb. 2, R
Radeon X XT May 4, R (loki) 32
Radeon X XT PE
Radeon X Pro Feb. 28, R
Radeon X XT
Radeon X XT PE

1Pixel shaders&#;: Vertex shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units

PCI-E (X5xx, X7xx, X8xx, X series)[edit]

Main article: Radeon R series

  • All models include PCI-E x16
  • All models include Direct3D b and OpenGL
Model Launch Code name Fab (nm) Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1FillrateMemory
MOperations/s MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit)
Radeon X XT Jan. 24, RV (alto)




Radeon X XTX
Radeon X SE Apr. 1,
DDR 64
Radeon X LE Dec. 21, 4
Radeon X (RV) Jan, 25, ,
Radeon X Sept.
Radeon X Pro Dec. 21, , GDDR3
Radeon X XT Never Released ,
Radeon X XL Mar. 7, (Medion OEM)
Radeon X GT MB Aug. 1, R
R (thor)
Radeon X GT MB GDDR3
Radeon X Dec. 1, R (thor) ,
Radeon X GTO MB Sept. 15, R
R (thor)

Radeon X GTO MB
Radeon X Pro May 5, R (thor)
Radeon X XL Dec. 1, (&#;MB)
May 4, (&#;MB)
R (thor) ,
Radeon X XT Dec. 1, R (thor) 32
Radeon X XT Platinum Edition May 5,
Radeon X Pro Dec. 1, R (thor)
Radeon X XT
Radeon X XT CrossFire Master Sept. 29,
Radeon X XT Platinum Edition Dec. 21,
Model Launch Code name Fab (nm) Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1MOperations/s MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit)
Fillrate Memory

1Pixel shaders&#;: Vertex Shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units

IGP (X12xx, 21xx)[edit]

Main article: Radeon R series

  • All models include Direct3D b and OpenGL
  • Based on Radeon X
Model Launch Code name Fab (nm) Bus interface Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1FillrateMemory
MOperations/s MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit)
Radeon Xpress X Feb. 28 RSC (zeus) 80 HT - - - DDR2
Radeon Xpress X Aug. 29, (Intel), Feb. 28, (AMD) RS, RS (zeus) FSB, HT
Radeon Xpress March 4, RS (titan) 55 HT

Radeon X series[edit]

Main article: Radeon X series

  • Note that ATI X series cards (e.g. X) don't have Vertex Texture Fetch, hence they do not fully comply with the VS model. Instead, they offer a feature called "Render to Vertex Buffer (R2VB)" that provides functionality that is an alternative Vertex Texture Fetch.
Model Launch Code name Fab (nm) Transistors (million) Die size (mm2) Bus interface Clock rate Core config FillrateMemory TDP (Watts) API support (version) Release Price (USD)
Core (MHz) Memory (MHz) MOperations/s MPixels/s MVertices/s MTexels/s Size (MB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit) Max. Direct3D OpenGL
Radeon X Oct. 5, (PCI-E)
Dec. 1, (AGP)
RV 90 AGP 8x
PCI-E x16

DDR2 c $
Radeon X
Oct. 5, PCI-E x16

Radeon X PRO Oct. 5, (PCI-E)
Nov. 1, (AGP)
AGP 8x
PCI-E x16

Radeon X XT Aug. 12, RV 22
Radeon X Jan. 8, RV AGP 8x
PCI-E x16

Radeon X PRO Oct. 10, RV AGP 8x
PCI-E x16
Radeon X XT Oct. 10, (PCI-E)
GDDR3 42
Radeon X Feb. 1, DDR2
Radeon X SE RV PCI-E x16 DDR2
Radeon X GT May 1, (PCI-E)
Oct. 1, (AGP)
RV 80 AGP 8x
PCI-E x16

Radeon X PRO Aug. 23, (PCI-E)
Oct. 15, (AGP)
RV 44
Radeon X XT Oct. 30, RV 55
Radeon X FSC Nov. 5, (OEM) RV PCI-E x16 44
Radeon X SE Nov. 30, RV 50
Radeon X
CrossFire Edition
Dec. 20, R 90
Radeon X GTO Mar. 9,
48 $
Radeon X XL Oct. 5, 70 $
Radeon X XT
Radeon X
CrossFire Edition
Jan. 24, R $
Radeon X GT May 5, 75 $
Radeon X GT Rev. 2 Sept. 7,
Radeon X XT Jan. 24,
Radeon X XTX R $
Radeon X
CrossFire Edition
Aug. 23, R+ 80 64 GDDR4 $
Radeon X GT Jan. 29, (PCI-E)
Feb. 10, (AGP)
PCI-E x16

GDDR3 57 $
Radeon X PRO Oct. 17, (PCI-E)
Oct. 25, (AGP)
66 $
Radeon X XT Oct. 17, (PCI-E)
Feb. 18, (AGP)
R+ AGP 8x
PCI-E x16
Radeon X XTX Oct. 17, PCI-E x16 64 GDDR4 $
Model Launch Code name Fab (nm) Transistors (million) Die size (mm2) Bus interface Core (MHz) Memory (MHz) Core config MOperations/s MPixels/s MVertices/s MTexels/s Size (MB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit) Max. Direct3D OpenGLRelease Price (USD)
Clock rate FillrateMemory TDP (Watts) API support (version)

1Pixel shaders&#;: Vertex shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units

Radeon HD series[edit]

Main articles: Radeon HD series and TeraScale 1

Model Launch Code name Fab (nm) Transistors (million) Die size (mm2) Bus interface Clock rate Core config FillrateMemory Processing power
TDP (Watts) Crossfire Support API support (version) Release Price (USD)
Core (MHz) Memory (MHz) Pixel (GP/s) Texture (GT/s) Size (MB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit) Single precisionDouble precisionIdle Max. Direct3D OpenGLOpenCL
Radeon HD Jun 28, RV 65 85 PCIe ×16 64 onboard + up to system DDR2 32 No 20 No APP Stream Only ?
Radeon HD PRO PCIe ×16

64 No $50–55
Radeon HD XT PCIe ×16

No 25 $75–85
Radeon HD PRO RV PCIe ×16

No 35 $89–99
Radeon HD XT

No 45
4-Way Crossfire$ (GDDR3) $ (GDDR4)
Radeon HD GT Nov 6, R GT 80 PCIe ×16 GDDR3 No $
Radeon HD PRO Sep 25, R PRO


No $ (mb GDDR3)

$ (1GB GDDR4)

Radeon HD XT May 14, R XT

No $

Radeon HD series[edit]

Main article: Radeon HD series

Model Launch Code name Fab (nm) Transistors (million) Die size (mm2) Bus interface Clock rate Core config FillrateMemory Processing power
TDP (Watts) Crossfire Support API support (version) Release Price (USD)
Core (MHz) Memory (MHz) Pixel (GP/s) Texture (GT/s) Size (MB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit) Single precisionDouble precisionIdle Max. Direct3D OpenGLOpenCL, ATI Stream
Radeon HD May 7, RV 65 85 PCIe x16 DDR2 64 No 20 No No, Yes ?
Radeon HD Jan 23, RV LE 55 67 PCIe x16
AGP 8x

No 25
Radeon HD RV PRO PCIe x16 DDR2
No 30
Radeon HD Aug 4, DDR2 No
Radeon HD Jul 5, No
Radeon HD Sep 24, RV PRO 65 PCIe x16
No 35
Radeon HD Jan 23, RV PRO 55 PCIe x16
AGP 8x

No 65 2-way Crossfire
Radeon HD Oct 5, PCIe x16 DDR2 No No
Radeon HD GDDR3 No 2-way Crossfire
Radeon HD Apr 1, RV PRO 75 $
Radeon HD Nov 19, PCIe x16
AGP 8x

4-way Crossfire$
Radeon HD RV XT

Radeon HD X2 Apr 4, RV PRO ×2×2PCIe x16 ×2×2×2×2×2GDDR3 ×2 2-way Crossfire$
Radeon HD X2 Jan 28, R
×2×2×2GDDR3 0,×2
×2 $

IGP (HD )[edit]

Main article: AMD chipset series

  • All Radeon HD IGP models include Direct3D and OpenGL
Model Launch Code name Graphics core Fab (nm) Transistors (million) Die size (mm2) Bus interface Core clock2 (MHz) Core config1FillrateMemory3Processing power
Features / Notes
Pixel (GP/s) Texture (GT/s) FP32 (GP/s) Size (MB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Effective clock (MHz) Bus width (bit)
Radeon Graphics (G Chipset) RSL[27]RV 55 ~73 (~9 × ) HT Up to system (system) HT (system) N/A N/A 28 AVIVO
Radeon Graphics (V Chipset)
Jan 23 (China)
Mar 4 (Worldwide)
Radeon HD Graphics (G Chipset) RS 2 2 1 Up to system + optional sideport (system) + (sideport) HT (system) + DDR DDR (sideport) (sideport) 16 (sideport) 40 UVD+, 8x AA (wide-tent CFAA)
Radeon HD Graphics (GX Chipset) Jul RSD Up to system + sideport HT (system) + DDR (sideport) 56 UVD+, PowerPlay

1Unified shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units
2 The clock frequencies may vary in different usage scenarios, as ATI PowerPlay technology is implemented. The clock frequencies listed here refer to the officially announced clock specifications.
3 The sideport is a dedicated memory bus. It is preferably used for a frame buffer.

All-in-Wonder series[edit]

Main article: All-in-Wonder

Model Launch Code name Fab (nm) Bus interface Core clock (MHz) Memory clock (MHz) Core config1FillrateMemory API (version)
MPixels/s MTexels/s MVertices/s Size (MB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit) Direct3DOpenGL
All-in-Wonder VE Dec 2, RV AGP 4x 0 32 DDR 64
All-in-Wonder Radeon Jul 31, R 32
All-in-Wonder Jan 22, RV 65 64
All-in-Wonder Apr 4, R
All-in-Wonder DV Aug 30, 64
All-in-Wonder Pro Mar 31, RV AGP 8x 64,
All-in-Wonder Jan 26,
All-in-Wonder SE N/A 64
All-in-Wonder Jan 26, RV
All-in-Wonder Pro Aug 05,
All-in-Wonder XT Jan 26,
All-in-Wonder Pro Dec 30, R
All-in-Wonder Pro Apr 7, R
All-in-Wonder SE Nov 1,
All-in-Wonder X Pro Sept 21, RV
All-in-Wonder X GT Aug 8, R PCI-E x16 GDDR3 b
All-in-Wonder X XL Jul 5, PCI-E x16
All-in-Wonder X XT Sept 9, R AGP 8x 32
All-in-Wonder Dec 22, RV 90 PCI-E x16 DDR2 c
All-in-Wonder X XL Nov 21, R 32 GDDR3
All-in-Wonder X Jan 24, R
All-in-Wonder HD Jun 28, RV 55 N/A DDR2

1Pixel shaders&#;: Vertex shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units
2Unified shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units

Radeon HD series[edit]

Main articles: Radeon HD series and TeraScale 1

Model4Launch Code name Fab (nm) Transistors (million) Die size (mm2) Bus interface Clock rate Core config1FillrateMemory2Processing power
TDP3 (Watts) Crossfire support API support (version) Release Price (USD)
Core (MHz) Memory (MHz) Pixel (GP/s) Texture (GT/s) Size (MB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit) Single precisionDouble precisionIdle Max. Direct3DOpenGLOpenCL
Radeon HD Sep 30, RV 55 73 PCIe ×16
PCIe ×1
AGP 8×

64 No 20 No ?
Radeon HD Sep 30, PCIe ×16

No 25
Radeon HD Nov 25, DDR2 No
Radeon HD Nov 20, RV PRO GDDR3 No 65
Radeon HD Sep 10, RV PRO PCIe ×16
AGP 8×




No 48 2-Way Crossfire
Radeon HD Sep 10, RV XT PCIe ×16
AGP 8×


No 59 $79
Radeon HD Jun 8, RV CE PCIe ×16


Radeon HD Sep 9, RV 40 80
Radeon HD Apr 28, $
Radeon HD May 28, RV CE 55

95 ?
Radeon HD Oct 21, RV LE
Radeon HD Jun 25, RV PRO

4-Way Crossfire$
Radeon HD Sep 9, RV GT
96 GDDR5 ?
Radeon HD Jun 25, RV XT

Radeon HD Apr 2, RV XT
Radeon HD X2 Nov 7, R (2xRV PRO) ×2×2 ×2×2×2×2
×2GDDR3 x2 2-Way Crossfire$
Radeon HD X2 Aug 12, R (2xRV XT) 12×230×2×2×2GDDR5 $
Model4Launch Code name Fab (nm) Transistors (million) Die size (mm2) Bus interface Clock rate Core config1Fillrate Memory2Processing power
TDP3 (Watts) Crossfire Support API support (version) Release Price (USD)
Core (MHz) Memory (MHz) Pixel (GP/s) Texture (GT/s) Size (MB) Bandwidth (GB/s) Bus type Bus width (bit) Single precision Double precision Idle Max. Direct3D OpenGL OpenCL

1Unified shaders&#;: Texture mapping units&#;: Render output units
2 The effective data transfer rate of GDDR5 is quadruple its nominal clock, instead of double as it is with other DDR memory.
3 The TDP is reference design TDP values from AMD. Different non-reference board designs from vendors may lead to slight variations in actual TDP.
4 All models feature UVD2 & PowerPlay.

IGP (HD )[edit]


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