Shabbat times israel tel aviv

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Kabbalat Shabbat Services

At each of our three centers, Beit Daniel, Kehilat Halev and Kehilat Daniel in Jaffa, we proudly celebrate the traditional Jewish values that connect us to our heritage, while maintaining our commitment to diversity and equality. We are an egalitarian community that strives to be a beacon for Jewish pluralism in action in Tel Aviv-Jaffa, and in Israeli society as a whole.

We invite you to join us for our activities and services.

Services at Beit Daniel:

 *Services are brought to you online on our facebook page

Kabbalat Shabbat and Holiday Services
Summer – 18:00 // Winter – 17:30

Services are led by Rabbi Meir Azari or Rabbi Galia Sadan together with Cantor Freddie Pe’er or our Songleader Shimon Smith

Shacharit Services (also on Facebook)
9:30 am

Kabbalat Shabbat at Kehilat Daniel in Jaffa at Mishkenot Ruth Daniel:
Summer – 18:30 // Winter – 17:30

Services are led by Rabbi Benjamin Minich.

Kabbalat Shabbat at Kehilat Halev:

Summer – 18:00 // Winter – 17:30

Services are led by (student) Rabbi Naomi Efrat.

During times of Corrona – please stay updated. call us or check our Facebook page.

Sours: https://www.beit-daniel.org.il/en/religious-services-and-learning/kabalat-shabat-services/

Tel Aviv

City in Israel

For other uses, see Tel Aviv (disambiguation).

City in Israel

Tel Aviv-Yafo

תל־אביב-יפו (Hebrew)
تل أبيب - يافا (Arabic)

From upper left: Hashalom interchange, Azrieli Sarona Tower, Jaffa Clock Tower, Tel Aviv Promenade, panorama of the city

Nickname(s): 
  • 'The first Hebrew city'
  • 'The White City'
  • 'Non-Stop City'
  • 'The Bubble'
  • 'TLV'
  • 'The Big Orange'
Tel Aviv-Yafo is located in Israel
Tel Aviv-Yafo

Tel Aviv-Yafo

Location within Israel

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Tel Aviv-Yafo is located in Asia
Tel Aviv-Yafo

Tel Aviv-Yafo

Location within Asia

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Tel Aviv-Yafo is located in Earth
Tel Aviv-Yafo

Tel Aviv-Yafo

Location on Earth

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Coordinates: 32°4′N34°47′E / 32.067°N 34.783°E / 32.067; 34.783Coordinates: 32°4′N34°47′E / 32.067°N 34.783°E / 32.067; 34.783
Country Israel
District Tel Aviv
Metropolitan areaGush Dan
Founded11 April 1909 (1909-04-11)
Named forTel Abib in Ezekiel 3:15, via Herzl's Altneuland
 • TypeMayor–council
 • BodyTel Aviv-Yafo Municipality
 • MayorRon Huldai
 • City52 km2 (20 sq mi)
 • Urban176 km2 (68 sq mi)
 • Metro1,516 km2 (585 sq mi)
Elevation5 m (16 ft)
 • City460,613
 • Rank2nd in Israel
 • Density8,468.7/km2 (21,934/sq mi)
 • Density rank12th in Israel
 • Urban1,388,400
 • Urban density8,057.7/km2 (20,869/sq mi)
 • Metro3,854,000
 • Metro density2,286/km2 (5,920/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Tel Avivian[2][3][4]
Time zoneUTC+2 (IST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (IDT)
Postal code

61XXXXX

Area code+972-3
ISO 3166 codeIL-TA
GDPUS$ 153.3 billion[5]
GDP per capitaUS$42,614[5]
Websitetel-aviv.gov.il
Official nameWhite City of Tel Aviv
TypeCultural
Criteriaii, iv
Designated2003
Reference no.[1]
State PartyIsrael
RegionIsrael

Tel Aviv-Yafo (Hebrew: תֵּל־אָבִיב-יָפוֹ‎, Tel Aviv-Yafo[tel aˈviv ˈjafo]; Arabic: تَلّ أَبِيب - يَافَا‎, Tall ʾAbīb-Yāfā), often referred to as just Tel Aviv, is the most populous city in the Gush Dan metropolitan area of Israel. Located on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline and with a population of 460,613, it is the economic and technological center of the country. If East Jerusalem is considered part of Israel, Tel Aviv is the country's second most populous city after Jerusalem; if not, Tel Aviv is the most populous city ahead of West Jerusalem.[a]

Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Mayor Ron Huldai, and is home to many foreign embassies.[b] It is a beta+ world city and is ranked 41st in the Global Financial Centres Index. Tel Aviv has the third- or fourth-largest economy and the largest economy per capita in the Middle East.[6][7] The city has the 31st highest cost of living in the world.[8] Tel Aviv receives over 2.5 million international visitors annually.[9][10] A "party capital" in the Middle East, it has a lively nightlife and 24-hour culture.[11][12] Tel Aviv has been called The World's Vegan Food Capital, as it possesses the highest per capita population of vegans in the world, with many vegan eateries throughout the city.[13] Tel Aviv is home to Tel Aviv University, the largest university in the country with more than 30,000 students.

The city was founded in 1909 by the Yishuv (Jewish residents) as a modern housing estate on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa, then part of the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem within the Ottoman Empire. It was at first called 'Ahuzat Bayit' (lit. "House Estate" or "Homestead"),[14][15] the name of the association which established the neighbourhood. Its name was changed the following year to 'Tel Aviv', after the biblical name Tel Abib adopted by Nahum Sokolow as the title for his Hebrew translation of Theodor Herzl's 1902 novel Altneuland ("Old New Land"). Other Jewish suburbs of Jaffa established before Tel Aviv eventually became part of Tel Aviv, the oldest among them being Neve Tzedek (est. 1886).[16][dubious – discuss] Tel Aviv was given "township" status within the Jaffa Municipality in 1921, and became independent from Jaffa in 1934.[17][18] After the 1947–1949 Palestine war Tel Aviv began the municipal annexation of parts of Jaffa, fully unified with Jaffa under the name "Tel Aviv" in April 1950, and was renamed to "Tel Aviv-Yafo" in August 1950.[19]

Immigration by mostly Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced that of Jaffa, which had a majority Arab population at the time.[20] Tel Aviv and Jaffa were later merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the Israeli Declaration of Independence, which was proclaimed in the city. Tel Aviv's White City, designated a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site in 2003, comprises the world's largest concentration of International Style buildings, including Bauhaus and other related modernist architectural styles.[21][22]

Etymology and origins

Tel Aviv is named after Theodor Herzl's 1902 novel, Altneuland("Old New Land"), for which the title of the Hebrew edition was "Tel Aviv"

Tel Aviv is the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzl's Altneuland ("Old New Land"), translated from German by Nahum Sokolow. Sokolow had adopted the name of a Mesopotamian site near the city of Babylon mentioned in Ezekiel: "Then I came to them of the captivity at Tel Aviv, that lived by the river Chebar, and to where they lived; and I sat there overwhelmed among them seven days."[23] The name was chosen in 1910 from several suggestions, including "Herzliya". It was found fitting as it embraced the idea of a renaissance in the ancient Jewish homeland. Aviv is Hebrew for "spring", symbolizing renewal, and tel is an artificial mound created over centuries through the accumulation of successive layers of civilization built one over the other and symbolizing the ancient.

Although founded in 1909 as a small settlement on the sand dunes north of Jaffa, Tel Aviv was envisaged as a future city from the start. Its founders hoped that in contrast to what they perceived as the squalid and unsanitary conditions of neighbouring Arab towns, Tel Aviv was to be a clean and modern city, inspired by the European cities of Warsaw and Odessa.[24] The marketing pamphlets advocating for its establishment stated:[24]

In this city we will build the streets so they have roads and sidewalks and electric lights. Every house will have water from wells that will flow through pipes as in every modern European city, and also sewerage pipes will be installed for the health of the city and its residents.

— Akiva Arieh Weiss, 1906

History

See also: Timeline of Tel Aviv and Jaffa

Jaffa

The walled city of Jaffa was the only urban centre in the general area where now Tel Aviv is located in early modern times. Jaffa was an important port city in the region for millennia. Archaeological evidence shows signs of human settlement there starting in roughly 7,500 BC.[26] The city was established around 1,800 BC at the latest. Its natural harbour has been used since the Bronze Age. By the time Tel Aviv was founded as a separate city during Ottoman rule of the region, Jaffa had been ruled by the Canaanites, Egyptians, Philistines, Israelites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Phoenicians, Ptolemies, Seleucids, Hasmoneans, Romans, Byzantines, the early Islamic caliphates, Crusaders, Ayyubids, and Mamluks before coming under Ottoman rule in 1515. It had been fought over numerous times. The city is mentioned in ancient Egyptian documents, as well as the Hebrew Bible.

Other ancient sites in Tel Aviv include: Tell Qasile, Tel Gerisa, Abattoir Hill. Tel Hashash and Tell Qudadi.

During the First Aliyah in the 1880s, when Jewish immigrants began arriving in the region in significant numbers, new neighborhoods were founded outside Jaffa on the current territory of Tel Aviv. The first was Neve Tzedek, founded in 1887 by Mizrahi Jews due to overcrowding in Jaffa and built on lands owned by Aharon Chelouche.[16] Other neighborhoods were Neve Shalom (1890), Yafa Nof (1896), Achva (1899), Ohel Moshe (1904), Kerem HaTeimanim (1906), and others. Once Tel Aviv received city status in the 1920s, those neighborhoods joined the newly formed municipality, now becoming separated from Jaffa.

1904–1917: Foundation in the Late Ottoman Period

Lottery for the first lots, April 1909

Nahlat Binyamin, 1913

The Second Aliyah led to further expansion. In 1906, a group of Jews, among them residents of Jaffa, followed the initiative of Akiva Aryeh Weiss and banded together to form the Ahuzat Bayit (lit. "homestead") society. One of the society's goals was to form a "Hebrew urban centre in a healthy environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics and modern hygiene."[27] The urban planning for the new city was influenced by the garden city movement.[28] The first 60 plots were purchased in Kerem Djebali near Jaffa by Jacobus Kann, a Dutch citizen, who registered them in his name to circumvent the Turkish prohibition on Jewish land acquisition.[29]Meir Dizengoff, later Tel Aviv's first mayor, also joined the Ahuzat Bayit society.[30][31] His vision for Tel Aviv involved peaceful co-existence with Arabs.[32][unreliable source]

On 11 April 1909, 66 Jewish families gathered on a desolate sand dune to parcel out the land by lottery using seashells. This gathering is considered the official date of the establishment of Tel Aviv. The lottery was organised by Akiva Aryeh Weiss, president of the building society.[33][34] Weiss collected 120 sea shells on the beach, half of them white and half of them grey. The members' names were written on the white shells and the plot numbers on the grey shells. A boy drew names from one box of shells and a girl drew plot numbers from the second box. A photographer, Abraham Soskin, documented the event. The first water well was later dug at this site, located on what is today Rothschild Boulevard, across from Dizengoff House.[35] Within a year, Herzl, Ahad Ha'am, Yehuda Halevi, Lilienblum, and Rothschild streets were built; a water system was installed; and 66 houses (including some on six subdivided plots) were completed.[28] At the end of Herzl Street, a plot was allocated for a new building for the Herzliya Hebrew High School, founded in Jaffa in 1906.[28] The cornerstone for the building was laid on 28 July 1909. The town was originally named Ahuzat Bayit. On 21 May 1910, the name Tel Aviv was adopted.[28] The flag and city arms of Tel Aviv (see above) contain under the red Star of David 2 words from the biblical book of Jeremiah: "I (God) will build You up again and you will be rebuilt." (Jer 31:4) Tel Aviv was planned as an independent Hebrew city with wide streets and boulevards, running water for each house, and street lights.[36]

By 1914, Tel Aviv had grown to more than 1 square kilometre (247 acres).[28] In 1915 a census of Tel Aviv was conducted, recording a population 2,679.[37] However, growth halted in 1917 when the Ottoman authorities expelled the residents of Jaffa and Tel Aviv as a wartime measure.[28] A report published in The New York Times by United States Consul Garrels in Alexandria, Egypt described the Jaffa deportation of early April 1917. The orders of evacuation were aimed chiefly at the Jewish population.[38] Jews were free to return to their homes in Tel Aviv at the end of the following year when, with the end of World War I and the defeat of the Ottomans, the British took control of Palestine.

The town had rapidly become an attraction to immigrants, with a local activist writing:[39]

The immigrants were attracted to Tel Aviv because they found in it all the comforts they were used to in Europe: electric light, water, a little cleanliness, cinema, opera, theatre, and also more or less advanced schools... busy streets, full restaurants, cafes open until 2 a.m., singing, music, and dancing.

British administration 1917–34: Townships within the Jaffa Municipality

A master plan for the Tel Aviv township was created by Patrick Geddes, 1925, based on the garden city movement.[40] The plan consisted of four main features: a hierarchical system of streets laid out in a grid, large blocks consisting of small-scale domestic dwellings, the organization of these blocks around central open spaces, and the concentration of cultural institutions to form a civic center.[41]

Tel Aviv, along with the rest of the Jaffa municipality, was conquered by the British imperial army in late 1917 during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I and became part of British-administered Mandatory Palestine until 1948.

Tel Aviv, established as suburb of Jaffa, received "township" or local council status within the Jaffa Municipality in 1921.[42][17][18] According to a census conducted in 1922 by the British Mandate authorities, the Tel Aviv township had a population of 15,185 inhabitants, consisting of 15,065 Jews, 78 Muslims and 42 Christians.[43] Increasing in the 1931 census to 46,101, in 12,545 houses.[44]

With increasing Jewish immigration during the British administration, friction between Arabs and Jews in Palestine increased. On 1 May 1921, the Jaffa riots resulted in the deaths of 48 Arabs and 47 Jews and injuries to 146 Jews and 73 Arabs.[45] In the wake of this violence, many Jews left Jaffa for Tel Aviv. The population of Tel Aviv increased from 2,000 in 1920 to around 34,000 by 1925.[21][46]

Tel Aviv began to develop as a commercial center.[47] In 1923, Tel Aviv was the first town to be wired to electricity in Palestine, followed by Jaffa later in the same year. The opening ceremony of the Jaffa Electric Company powerhouse, on 10 June 1923, celebrated the lighting of the two main streets of Tel Aviv.[48]

In 1925, the Scottish biologist, sociologist, philanthropist and pioneering town planner Patrick Geddes drew up a master plan for Tel Aviv which was adopted by the city council led by Meir Dizengoff. Geddes's plan for developing the northern part of the district was based on Ebenezer Howard's garden city movement.[40] While most of the northern area of Tel Aviv was built according to this plan, the influx of European refugees in the 1930s necessitated the construction of taller apartment buildings on a larger footprint in the city.[49]

Ben Gurion House was built in 1930–31, part of a new workers' housing development. At the same time, Jewish cultural life was given a boost by the establishment of the Ohel Theatre and the decision of Habima Theatre to make Tel Aviv its permanent base in 1931.[28]

1934 municipal independence from Jaffa

Tel Aviv bus station during the Mandate era
Magen David Square in 1936

Tel Aviv was granted the status of an independent municipality separate from Jaffa in 1934.[17][18]

The Jewish population rose dramatically during the Fifth Aliyah after the Nazis came to power in Germany.[28] By 1937 the Jewish population of Tel Aviv had risen to 150,000, compared to Jaffa's mainly Arab 69,000 residents. Within two years, it had reached 160,000, which was over a third of Palestine's total Jewish population.[28] Many new Jewish immigrants to Palestine disembarked in Jaffa, and remained in Tel Aviv, turning the city into a center of urban life. Friction during the 1936–39 Arab revolt led to the opening of a local Jewish port, Tel Aviv Port, independent of Jaffa, in 1938. It closed on 25 October 1965. Lydda Airport (later Ben Gurion Airport) and Sde Dov Airport opened between 1937 and 1938.[32][unreliable source]

Many German Jewish architects trained at the Bauhaus, the Modernist school of architecture in Germany, and left Germany during the 1930s. Some, like Arieh Sharon, came to Palestine and adapted the architectural outlook of the Bauhaus and similar schools to the local conditions there, creating what is recognized as the largest concentration of buildings in the International Style in the world.[21][32][unreliable source] Tel Aviv's White City emerged in the 1930s, and became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003.[50] During World War II, Tel Aviv was hit by Italian airstrikes on 9 September 1940, which killed 137 people in the city.[51]

During the Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine, Jewish Irgun and Lehi guerrillas launched repeated attacks against British military, police, and government targets in the city. In 1946, following the King David Hotel bombing, the British carried out Operation Shark, in which the entire city was searched for Jewish militants and most of the residents questioned, during which the entire city was placed under curfew. During the March 1947 martial law in Mandatory Palestine, Tel Aviv was placed under martial law by the British authorities for 15 days, with the residents kept under curfew for all but three hours a day as British forces scoured the city for militants. In spite of this, Jewish guerrilla attacks continued in Tel Aviv and other areas under martial law in Palestine.

According to the 1947 UN Partition Plan for dividing Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, Tel Aviv, by then a city of 230,000, was to be included in the proposed Jewish state. Jaffa with, as of 1945, a population of 101,580 people—53,930 Muslims, 30,820 Jews and 16,800 Christians—was designated as part of the Arab state. Civil War broke out in the country and in particular between the neighbouring cities of Tel Aviv and Jaffa, which had been assigned to the Jewish and Arab states respectively. After several months of siege, on 13 May 1948, Jaffa fell and the Arab population fled en masse.

  • Tel Aviv, Allenby Street, 1940

State of Israel

Crowd outside Dizengoff House (now Independence Hall) to witness the proclamation and signing of Israel's Declaration of Independence in 1948

Independence

When Israel declared Independence on 14 May 1948, the population of Tel Aviv was over 200,000.[52] Tel Aviv was the temporary government center of the State of Israel until the government moved to Jerusalem in December 1949. Due to the international dispute over the status of Jerusalem, most embassies remained in or near Tel Aviv.[53]

Growth in the 1950s and 1960s

The boundaries of Tel Aviv and Jaffa became a matter of contention between the Tel Aviv municipality and the Israeli government in 1948.[19] The former wished to incorporate only the northern Jewish suburbs of Jaffa, while the latter wanted a more complete unification.[19] The issue also had international sensitivity, since the main part of Jaffa was in the Arab portion of the United Nations Partition Plan, whereas Tel Aviv was not, and no armistice agreements had yet been signed.[19] On 10 December 1948, the government announced the annexation to Tel Aviv of Jaffa's Jewish suburbs, the Palestinian neighborhood of Abu Kabir, the Arab village of Salama and some of its agricultural land, and the Jewish 'Hatikva' slum.[19] On 25 February 1949, the depopulated Palestinian village of al-Shaykh Muwannis was also annexed to Tel Aviv.[19] On 18 May 1949, Manshiya and part of Jaffa's central zone were added, for the first time including land that had been in the Arab portion of the UN partition plan.[19] The government voted on the unification of Tel Aviv and Jaffa on 4 October 1949, but the decision was not implemented until 24 April 1950 due to the opposition of Tel Aviv mayor Israel Rokach.[19] The name of the unified city was Tel Aviv until 19 August 1950, when it was renamed Tel Aviv-Yafo in order to preserve the historical name Jaffa.[19]

Tel Aviv thus grew to 42 square kilometers (16.2 sq mi). In 1949, a memorial to the 60 founders of Tel Aviv was constructed.[54]

In the 1960s, some of the older buildings were demolished, making way for the country's first high-rises. The historic Herzliya Hebrew Gymnasium was controversially demolished, to make way for the Shalom Meir Tower, which was completed in 1965, and remained Israel's tallest building until 1999. Tel Aviv's population peaked in the early 1960s at 390,000, representing 16 percent of the country's total.[55]

1970s and 1980s population and urban decline

Azrieli Sarona tower (238.5 metres high), finished in 2017
Arlozorov Young Towers 1, finished in 2020

By the early 1970s, Tel Aviv had entered a long and steady period of continuous population decline, which was accompanied by urban decay. By 1981, Tel Aviv had entered not just natural population decline, but an absolute population decline as well.[56] In the late 1980s the city had an aging population of 317,000.[55] Construction activity had moved away from the inner ring of Tel Aviv, and had moved to its outer perimeter and adjoining cities. A mass out-migration of residents from Tel Aviv, to adjoining cities like Petah Tikva and Rehovot, where better housing conditions were available, was underway by the beginning of the 1970s, and only accelerated by the Yom Kippur War.[56] Cramped housing conditions and high property prices pushed families out of Tel Aviv and deterred young people from moving in.[55] From the beginning of 1970s, the common image of Tel Aviv became that of a decaying city,[57] as Tel Aviv's population fell 20%.[58]

In the 1970s, the apparent sense of Tel Aviv's urban decline became a theme in the work of novelists such as Yaakov Shabtai, in works describing the city such as Sof Davar (The End of Things) and Zikhron Devarim (The Memory of Things).[57] A symptomatic article of 1980 asked "Is Tel Aviv Dying?" and portrayed what it saw as the city's existential problems: "Residents leaving the city, businesses penetrating into residential areas, economic and social gaps, deteriorating neighbourhoods, contaminated air - Is the First Hebrew City destined for a slow death? Will it become a ghost town?".[57] However, others saw this as a transitional period. By the late 1980s, attitudes to the city's future had become markedly more optimistic. It had also become a center of nightlife and discotheques for Israelis who lived in the suburbs and adjoining cities. By 1989, Tel Aviv had acquired the nickname "Nonstop City", as a reflection of the growing recognition of its nightlife and 24/7 culture, and "Nonstop City" had to some extent replaced the former moniker of "First Hebrew City".[59]

The largest project built in this era was the Dizengoff Center, Israel's first shopping mall, which was completed in 1983. Other notable projects included the construction of Marganit Tower in 1987, the opening of the Suzanne Dellal Center for Dance and Theater in 1989, and the Tel Aviv Cinematheque (opened in 1973 and located to the current building in 1989).

In the early 1980s, 13 embassies in Jerusalem moved to Tel Aviv as part of the UN's measures responding to Israel's 1980 Jerusalem Law.[60] Today, most national embassies are located in Tel Aviv or environs.[61]

1990s to present

In the 1990s, the decline in Tel Aviv's population began to be reversed and stabilized, at first temporarily due to a wave of immigrants from the former Soviet Union.[55] Tel Aviv absorbed 42,000 immigrants from the FSU, many educated in scientific, technological, medical and mathematical fields.[62] In this period, the number of engineers in the city doubled.[63] Tel Aviv soon began to emerge as a global high-tech center.[32] The construction of many skyscrapers and high-tech office buildings followed. In 1993, Tel Aviv was categorized as a world city.[64]

However, the city's municipality struggled to cope with an influx of new immigrants. Tel Aviv's tax base had been shrinking for many years, as a result of its preceding long term population decline, and this meant there was little money available at the time to invest in the city's deteriorating infrastructure and housing. In 1998, Tel Aviv was on the "verge of bankruptcy".[65] Economic difficulties would then be compounded by a wave of Palestinian suicide bombings in the city from the mid 1990s, to the end of the Second Intifada, as well as the Dot-com bubble, which affected the city's rapidly growing hi-tech sector.

On 4 November 1995, Israel's prime minister, Yitzhak Rabin, was assassinated at a rally in Tel Aviv in support of the Oslo peace accord. The outdoor plaza where this occurred, formerly known as Kikar Malchei Yisrael, was renamed Rabin Square.[32]

New laws were introduced to protect Modernist buildings, and efforts to preserve them were aided by UNESCO recognition of the Tel Aviv's White City as a world heritage site in 2003. In the early 2000s, Tel Aviv municipality focused on attracting more young residents to the city. It made significant investment in major boulevards, to create attractive pedestrian corridors. Former industrial areas like the city's previously derelict Northern Tel Aviv Port and the Jaffa railway station, were upgraded and transformed into leisure areas. A process of gentrification began in some of the poor neighborhoods of southern Tel Aviv and many older buildings began to be renovated.[32]

The demographic profile of the city changed in the 2000s, as it began to attract a higher proportion of young residents. By 2012, 28 percent of the city's population was aged between 20 and 34 years old. Between 2007 and 2012, the city's population growth averaged 6.29 percent. As a result of its population recovery and industrial transition, the city's finances were transformed, and by 2012 it was running a budget surplus and maintained a credit rating of AAA+.[66]

In the 2000s and early 2010s, Tel Aviv received tens of thousands of illegal immigrants, primarily from Sudan and Eritrea,[67] changing the demographic profile of areas of the city.

In 2009, Tel Aviv celebrated its official centennial.[68] In addition to city- and country-wide celebrations, digital collections of historical materials were assembled. These include the History section of the official Tel Aviv-Yafo Centennial Year website;[68] the Ahuzat Bayit collection, which focuses on the founding families of Tel Aviv, and includes photographs and biographies;[69] and Stanford University's Eliasaf Robinson Tel Aviv Collection,[70] documenting the history of the city. Today, the city is regarded as a strong candidate for global city status.[71] Over the past 60 years, Tel Aviv had developed into a secular, liberal-minded center with a vibrant nightlife and café culture.[32]

Arab–Israeli conflict

In the Gulf War in 1991, Tel Aviv was attacked by Scud missiles from Iraq. Iraq hoped to provoke an Israeli military response, which could have destroyed the US–Arab alliance. The United States pressured Israel not to retaliate, and after Israel acquiesced, the US and Netherlands rushed Patriot missiles to defend against the attacks, but they proved largely ineffective. Tel Aviv and other Israeli cities continued to be hit by Scuds throughout the war, and every city in the Tel Aviv area except for Bnei Brak was hit. A total of 74 Israelis died as a result of the Iraqi attacks, mostly from suffocation and heart attacks,[72] while approximately 230 Israelis were injured.[73] Extensive property damage was also caused, and some 4,000 Israelis were left homeless. It was feared that Iraq would fire missiles filled with nerve agents or sarin. As a result, the Israeli government issued gas masks to its citizens. When the first Iraqi missiles hit Israel, some people injected themselves with an antidote for nerve gas. The inhabitants of the southeastern suburb of HaTikva erected an angel-monument as a sign of their gratitude that "it was through a great miracle, that many people were preserved from being killed by a direct hit of a Scud rocket."[74]

Since the First Intifada, Tel Aviv has suffered from Palestinian political violence. The first suicide attack in Tel Aviv occurred on 19 October 1994, on the Line 5 bus, when a bomber killed 22 civilians and injured 50 as part of a Hamas suicide campaign.[75] On 6 March 1996, another Hamas suicide bomber killed 13 people (12 civilians and 1 soldier), many of them children, in the Dizengoff Center suicide bombing.[76][77] Three women were killed by a Hamas terrorist in the Café Apropo bombing on 27 March 1997.[78][79][80]

One of the deadliest attacks occurred on 1 June 2001, during the Second Intifada, when a suicide bomber exploded at the entrance to the Dolphinarium discothèque, killing 21, mostly teenagers, and injuring 132.[81][82][83][84] Another Hamas suicide bomber killed six civilians and injured 70 in the Allenby Street bus bombing.[85][86][87][88][89] Twenty-three civilians were killed and over 100 injured in the Tel Aviv central bus station massacre.[90][91]Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack. In the Mike's Place suicide bombing, an attack on a bar by a British Muslim suicide bomber resulted in the deaths of three civilians and wounded over 50.[92] Hamas and Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed joint responsibility. An Islamic Jihad bomber killed five and wounded over 50 on 25 February 2005 Stage Club bombing.[93] The most recent suicide attack in the city occurred on 17 April 2006, when 11 people were killed and at least 70 wounded in a suicide bombing near the old central bus station.[94]

Another attack took place on 29 August 2011 in which a Palestinian attacker stole an Israeli taxi cab and rammed it into a police checkpoint guarding the popular Haoman 17nightclub in Tel Aviv which was filled with 2,000[95]Israeli teenagers. After crashing, the assailant went on a stabbing spree, injuring eight people.[93] Due to an Israel Border Police roadblock at the entrance and immediate response of the Border Police team during the subsequent stabbings, a much larger and fatal mass-casualty incident was avoided.[96]

On 21 November 2012, during Operation Pillar of Defense, the Tel Aviv area was targeted by rockets, and air raid sirens were sounded in the city for the first time since the Gulf War. All of the rockets either missed populated areas or were shot down by an Iron Dome rocket defense battery stationed near the city. During the operation, a bomb blast on a bus wounded at least 28 civilians, three seriously.[97][98][99][100] This was described as a terrorist attack by Israel, Russia, and the United States and was condemned by the United Nations, United States, United Kingdom, France and Russia, whilst Hamas spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri declared that the organisation "blesses" the attack.[101]

More than 300 rockets were fired towards the Tel Aviv Metropolitan area in the 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis.[102]

Geography

Tel Aviv seen from space in 2003
City plan of Tel Aviv, Israel

Tel Aviv is located around 32°5′N34°48′E / 32.083°N 34.800°E / 32.083; 34.800 on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline, in central Israel, the historic land bridge between Europe, Asia and Africa. Immediately north of the ancient port of Jaffa, Tel Aviv lies on land that used to be sand dunes and as such has relatively poor soil fertility. The land has been flattened and has no important gradients; its most notable geographical features are bluffs above the Mediterranean coastline and the Yarkon River mouth.[103] Because of the expansion of Tel Aviv and the Gush Dan region, absolute borders between Tel Aviv and Jaffa and between the city's neighborhoods do not exist.

The city is located 60 kilometers (37 mi) northwest of Jerusalem and 90 kilometers (56 mi) south of the city of Haifa.[104] Neighboring cities and towns include Herzliya to the north, Ramat HaSharon to the northeast, Petah Tikva, Bnei Brak, Ramat Gan and Giv'atayim to the east, Holon to the southeast, and Bat Yam to the south.[105] The city is economically stratified between the north and south. Southern Tel Aviv is considered less affluent than northern Tel Aviv with the exception of Neve Tzedek and northern and north-western Jaffa. Central Tel Aviv is home to Azrieli Center and the important financial and commerce district along Ayalon Highway. The northern side of Tel Aviv is home to Tel Aviv University, Hayarkon Park, and upscale residential neighborhoods such as Ramat Aviv and Afeka.[106]

Climate

Tel Aviv has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa),[107] and enjoys plenty of sunshine throughout the year. Most precipitation falls in the form of rain between the months of October and April, with intervening dry summers. The average annual temperature is 20.9 °C (69.6 °F), and the average sea temperature is 18–20 °C (64–68 °F) during the winter, and 24–29 °C (75–84 °F) during the summer. The city averages 528 millimeters (20.8 in) of precipitation annually.

Summers in Tel Aviv last about five months, from June to October. August, the warmest month, averages a high of 30.6 °C (87.1 °F), and a low of 25 °C (77 °F). The high relative humidity due to the location of the city by the Mediterranean Sea, in a combination with the high temperatures, creates a thermal discomfort during the summer. Summer low temperatures in Tel Aviv seldom drop below 20 °C (68 °F).

Winters are mild and wet, with most of the annual precipitation falling within the months of December, January and February as intense rainfall and thunderstorms. In January, the coolest month, the average maximum temperature is 17.6 °C (63.7 °F), the minimum temperature averages 10.2 °C (50.4 °F). During the coldest days of winter, temperatures may vary between 8 °C (46 °F) and 12 °C (54 °F). Both freezing temperatures and snowfall are extremely rare in the city.

Autumns and springs are characterized by sharp temperature changes, with heat waves that might be created due to hot and dry air masses that arrive from the nearby deserts. During heatwaves in autumn and springs, temperatures usually climb up to 35 °C (95 °F) and even up to 40 °C (104 °F), accompanied with exceptionally low humidity. An average day during autumn and spring has a high of 23 °C (73 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F), and a low of 15 °C (59 °F) to 18 °C (64 °F).

The highest recorded temperature in Tel Aviv was 46.5 °C (115.7 °F) on 17 May 1916, and the lowest is −1.9 °C (28.6 °F) on 7 February 1950, during a cold wave that brought the only recorded snowfall in Tel Aviv.

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
18.8
(65.8)
17.6
(63.7)
17.9
(64.2)
18.6
(65.5)
21.2
(70.2)
24.9
(76.8)
27.4
(81.3)
28.6
(83.5)
28.2
(82.8)
26.3
(79.3)
23.2
(73.8)
20.6
(69.1)
Climate data for Tel Aviv (Temperature: 1987–2010, Precipitation: 1980–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.0
(86.0)
33.2
(91.8)
38.3
(100.9)
43.9
(111.0)
46.5
(115.7)
44.4
(111.9)
37.4
(99.3)
41.4
(106.5)
42.0
(107.6)
44.4
(111.9)
35.6
(96.1)
33.5
(92.3)
46.5
(115.7)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 23.6
(74.5)
25.0
(77.0)
30.4
(86.7)
35.5
(95.9)
32.4
(90.3)
30.8
(87.4)
31.6
(88.9)
31.8
(89.2)
32.0
(89.6)
32.9
(91.2)
29.2
(84.6)
23.8
(74.8)
35.5
(95.9)
Average high °C (°F) 17.5
(63.5)
17.7
(63.9)
19.2
(66.6)
22.8
(73.0)
24.9
(76.8)
27.5
(81.5)
29.4
(84.9)
30.2
(86.4)
29.4
(84.9)
27.3
(81.1)
23.4
(74.1)
19.2
(66.6)
24.0
(75.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.9
(55.2)
13.4
(56.1)
16.4
(61.5)
19.2
(66.6)
21.8
(71.2)
24.8
(76.6)
27.0
(80.6)
27.8
(82.0)
26.5
(79.7)
22.7
(72.9)
17.6
(63.7)
13.9
(57.0)
20.3
(68.6)
Average low °C (°F) 9.6
(49.3)
9.8
(49.6)
11.5
(52.7)
14.4
(57.9)
17.3
(63.1)
20.6
(69.1)
23.0
(73.4)
23.7
(74.7)
22.5
(72.5)
19.1
(66.4)
14.6
(58.3)
11.2
(52.2)
16.4
(61.6)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 6.6
(43.9)
7.3
(45.1)
8.3
(46.9)
10.7
(51.3)
14.0
(57.2)
18.3
(64.9)
22.2
(72.0)
23.3
(73.9)
20.6
(69.1)
16.2
(61.2)
10.9
(51.6)
7.8
(46.0)
6.6
(43.9)
Record low °C (°F) −1.9
(28.6)
−2.0
(28.4)
3.5
(38.3)
7.0
(44.6)
11.2
(52.2)
15.0
(59.0)
19.0
(66.2)
20.0
(68.0)
15.7
(60.3)
11.6
(52.9)
6.0
(42.8)
4.0
(39.2)
−2.0
(28.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 147
(5.8)
111
(4.4)
62
(2.4)
16
(0.6)
4
(0.2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.0)
34
(1.3)
81
(3.2)
127
(5.0)
583
(22.9)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)15 13 10 4 2 0 0 0 0 6 9 12 71
Average relative humidity (%) (at 1200 GMT)72 70 65 60 63 67 70 67 60 65 68 73 67
Mean monthly sunshine hours192.2 200.1 235.6 270.0 328.6 357.0 368.9 356.5 300.0 279.0 234.0 189.1 3,311
Source 1: Israel Meteorological Service[109][110][111][112]
Source 2: Hong Kong Observatory for data of sunshine hours[113]
Climate data for Tel Aviv the West Coast (2005–2014)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.7
(81.9)
31.8
(89.2)
38.3
(100.9)
39.1
(102.4)
38.4
(101.1)
36.7
(98.1)
31.7
(89.1)
32.5
(90.5)
34.1
(93.4)
39.5
(103.1)
34.0
(93.2)
29.5
(85.1)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F) 18.3
(64.9)
18.9
(66.0)
20.7
(69.3)
22.6
(72.7)
24.4
(75.9)
27.1
(80.8)
29.0
(84.2)
29.9
(85.8)
29.0
(84.2)
26.9
(80.4)
23.9
(75.0)
20.3
(68.5)
24.3
(75.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.7
(58.5)
15.4
(59.7)
17.2
(63.0)
19.3
(66.7)
21.7
(71.1)
24.7
(76.5)
26.9
(80.4)
27.6
(81.7)
26.5
(79.7)
23.8
(74.8)
20.2
(68.4)
16.6
(61.9)
21.2
(70.2)
Average low °C (°F) 11.1
(52.0)
11.9
(53.4)
13.6
(56.5)
16.0
(60.8)
18.9
(66.0)
22.4
(72.3)
24.7
(76.5)
25.4
(77.7)
24.1
(75.4)
20.7
(69.3)
16.5
(61.7)
12.8
(55.0)
18.2
(64.7)
Record low °C (°F) 4.2
(39.6)
5.2
(41.4)
7.2
(45.0)
10.3
(50.5)
13.1
(55.6)
18.8
(65.8)
21.6
(70.9)
22.5
(72.5)
20.1
(68.2)
15.1
(59.2)
10.2
(50.4)
4.0
(39.2)
4.0
(39.2)
Source: Israel Meteorological Service databases[114][115]

Local government

Tel Aviv is governed by a 31-member city council elected for a five-year term in direct proportional elections.[116]

All Israeli citizens over the age of 18 with at least one year of residence in Tel Aviv are eligible to vote in municipal elections. The municipality is responsible for social services, community programs, public infrastructure, urban planning, tourism and other local affairs.[117][118][119] The Tel Aviv City Hall is located at Rabin Square. Ron Huldai has been mayor of Tel Aviv since 1998.[116] Huldai was reelected for a fifth term in the 2018 municipal elections, defeating former deputy Asaf Zamir, founder of the Ha'Ir party.[120] Huldai's has become the longest-serving mayor of the city, exceeding Shlomo Lahat 19-year term, and will be term-limited from running for a sixth term.[120] The shortest-serving was David Bloch, in office for two years, 1925–27.

Politically, Tel Aviv is known to be a stronghold for the left, in both local and national issues. The left wing vote is especially prevalent in the city's mostly affluent central and northern neighborhoods, though not the case for its working-class southeastern neighborhoods which tend to vote for right wing parties in national elections.[121] Outside the kibbutzim, Meretz receives more votes in Tel Aviv than in any other city in Israel.[122]

List of Mayors of Tel Aviv

See also: Mayoral elections in Tel Aviv

Mandatory Palestine (1920–1948)

State of Israel (1948–present)

City council

Following the 2013 municipal elections, Meretz gained an unprecedented 6 seats on the council. However, having been reelected as mayor, Huldai and the Tel Aviv 1 list lead the coalition, which controls 29 of 31 seats.

Party Seats Coalition Member
Meretz6 Yes
Tel Aviv 1 5 Yes
Rov Ha'ir (City Majority) 4 Yes
Ir Le'kulanu (City for All) 3 Partial (2 of 3 seats, Shelley Dvir remained in the Opposition)
Segev-Beyachad Tel Aviv (Shas, Jewish Home, Torah Judaism) 3 Yes
Ko'ach Le'gimla'im (Power to Pensioners) 2 Yes
Halikud Beiteinu2 Yes
Drom Ha'ir (South Tel Aviv) 1 Yes
Yesh Atid1 Yes
Tel Aviv B'tucha (Safe Tel Aviv) 1 Yes
Aseifat Horim (Parents' Assembly) 1 No
Tzedek Hevrati (Social Justice) 1 Yes
Mahapach Yarok (Green Revolution) 1 Yes

Education

In 2006, 51,359 children attended school in Tel Aviv, of whom 8,977 were in municipal kindergartens, 23,573 in municipal elementary schools, and 18,809 in high schools.[123] Sixty-four percent of students in the city are entitled to matriculation, more than 5 percent higher than the national average.[123] About 4,000 children are in first grade at schools in the city, and population growth is expected to raise this number to 6,000.[124] As a result, 20 additional kindergarten classes were opened in 2008–09 in the city. A new elementary school is planned north of Sde Dov as well as a new high school in northern Tel Aviv.[124]

The first Hebrew high school, called Herzliya Hebrew Gymnasium, was established in Jaffa in 1905 and moved to Tel Aviv after its founding in 1909, where a new campus on Herzl Street was constructed for it.

Tel Aviv University, the largest university in Israel, is known internationally for its physics, computer science, chemistry and linguistics departments. Together with Bar-Ilan University in neighboring Ramat Gan, the student population numbers over 50,000, including a sizeable international community.[125][126] Its campus is located in the neighborhood of Ramat Aviv.[127] Tel Aviv also has several colleges.[128] The Herzliya Hebrew Gymnasium moved from Jaffa to old Tel Aviv in 1909 and moved to Jabotinsky Street in the early 1960s.[129] Other notable schools in Tel Aviv include Shevah Mofet, the second Hebrew school in the city, Ironi Alef High School for Arts and Alliance.

Demographics

Sarona, old Templer houses and modern highrises

Tel Aviv has a population of 460,613 spread over a land area of 52,000 dunams (52 km2; 20 sq mi), yielding a population density of 7,606 people per square km (19,699 per square mile). According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), as of 2009[update] Tel Aviv's population is growing at an annual rate of 0.5 percent. Jews of all backgrounds form 91.8 percent of the population, Muslims and Arab Christians make up 4.2 percent, and the remainder belong to other groups (including various Christian and Asian communities).[130] As Tel Aviv is a multicultural city, many languages are spoken in addition to Hebrew. According to some estimates, about 50,000 unregistered African and Asian foreign workers live in the city.[131] Compared with Westernised cities, crime in Tel Aviv is relatively low.[132]

According to Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, the average income in the city, which has an Unemployment Rate of 4.6%,[133] is 20% above the national average.[123] The city's education standards are above the national average: of its 12th-grade students, 64.4 percent are eligible for matriculation certificates.[123] The age profile is relatively even, with 22.2 percent aged under 20, 18.5 percent aged 20–29, 24 percent aged 30–44, 16.2 percent aged between 45 and 59, and 19.1 percent older than 60.[134]

Tel Aviv's population reached a peak in the early 1960s at around 390,000, falling to 317,000 in the late 1980s as high property prices forced families out and deterred young couples from moving in.[55] Since the 1990s, population has steadily grown.[55] Today, the city's population is young and growing.[124] In 2006, 22,000 people moved to the city, while only 18,500 left,[124] and many of the new families had young children. The population is expected to reach 450,000 by 2025; meanwhile, the average age of residents fell from 35.8 in 1983 to 34 in 2008.[124] The population over age 65 stands at 14.6 percent compared with 19% in 1983.[124]

Religion

Tel Aviv has 544 active synagogues,[135] including historic buildings such as the Great Synagogue, established in the 1930s.[136] In 2008, a center for secular Jewish studies and a secular yeshiva opened in the city.[137] Tensions between religious and secular Jews before the 2006 gay pride parade ended in vandalism of a synagogue.[138] The number of churches has grown to accommodate the religious needs of diplomats and foreign workers.[139] The population was 93% Jewish, 1% Muslim, and 1% Christian. The remaining 5 percent were not classified by religion.[140]Israel Meir Lau is Chief Rabbi of the city.[141]

Tel Aviv is an ethnically diverse city. The Jewish population, which forms the majority group in Tel Aviv, consists of the descendants of immigrants from all parts of the world, including Ashkenazi Jews from Europe, North America, South America, Australia and South Africa, as well as Sephardic and Mizrahi Jews from Southern Europe, North Africa, India, Central Asia, West Asia, and the Arabian Peninsula. There are also a sizable number of Ethiopian Jews and their descendants living in Tel Aviv. In addition to Muslim and Arab Christian minorities in the city, several hundred Armenian Christians who reside in the city are concentrated mainly in Jaffa and some Christians from the former Soviet Union who immigrated to Israel with Jewish spouses and relatives. In recent years, Tel Aviv has received many non-Jewish migrants from Asia and Africa, students, foreign workers (documented and undocumented) and refugees. There are many economic migrants and refugees from African countries, primarily Eritrea and Sudan, located in the southern part of the city.[142]

Neighborhoods

Further information: Neighborhoods of Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv is divided into nine districts that have formed naturally over the city's short history. The oldest of these is Jaffa, the ancient port city out of which Tel Aviv grew. This area is traditionally made up demographically of a greater percentage of Arabs, but recent gentrification is replacing them with a young professional and artist population. Similar processes are occurring in nearby Neve Tzedek, the original Jewish neighborhood outside of Jaffa. Ramat Aviv, a district in the northern part of the city that is largely made up of luxury apartments and includes Tel Aviv University, is currently undergoing extensive expansion and is set to absorb the beachfront property of Sde Dov Airport after its decommissioning.[143] The area known as HaKirya is the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) headquarters and a large military base.[106]

Moreover, in the past few years, Rothschild Boulevard which is located in Neve Tzedek has become an attraction for tourists, businesses and startups. It features a wide, tree-lined central strip with pedestrian and bike lanes. Historically, there was a demographic split between the Ashkenazi northern side of the city, including the district of Ramat Aviv, and the southern, more Sephardi and Mizrahi neighborhoods including Neve Tzedek and Florentin.[32][unreliable source]

Since the 1980s, major restoration and gentrification projects have been implemented in southern Tel Aviv.[32][unreliable source] Baruch Yoscovitz, city planner for Tel Aviv beginning in 2001, reworked old British plans for the Florentin neighborhood from the 1920s, adding green areas, pedestrian malls, and housing. The municipality invested two million shekels in the project. The goal was to make Florentin the Soho of Tel Aviv, and attract artists and young professionals to the neighborhood. Indeed, street artists, such as Dede, installation artists such as Sigalit Landau, and many others made the upbeat neighborhood their home base.[144][145] Florentin is now known as a hip, "cool" place to be in Tel Aviv with coffeehouses, markets, bars, galleries and parties.[146]

Cityscape

Architecture

Tel Aviv is home to different architectural styles that represent influential periods in its history. The early architecture of Tel Aviv consisted largely of European-style single-storey houses with red-tiled roofs.[147]Neve Tzedek, the first neighbourhood to be built outside of Jaffa, is characterised by two-storey sandstone buildings.[21] By the 1920s, a new eclectic Orientalist style came into vogue, combining European architecture with Eastern features such as arches, domes and ornamental tiles.[147] Municipal construction followed the "garden city" master plan drawn up by Patrick Geddes. Two- and three-storey buildings were interspersed with boulevards and public parks.[147] Various architectural styles, such as Art Deco, classical and modernist also exist in Tel Aviv.

International Style and Bauhaus

Main articles: International Style (architecture) and Bauhaus

See also: Streamline Moderne

Bauhaus architecture was introduced in the 1920s and 1930s by German Jewish architects who settled in Palestine after the rise of the Nazis. Tel Aviv's White City, around the city center, contains more than 5,000 Modernist-style buildings inspired by the Bauhaus school and Le Corbusier.[21][22] Construction of these buildings, later declared protected landmarks and, collectively, a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site, continued until the 1950s in the area around Rothschild Boulevard.[22][148] Some 3,000 buildings were created in this style between 1931 and 1939 alone.[147] In the 1960s, this architectural style gave way to office towers and a chain of waterfront hotels and commercial skyscrapers.[32] Some of the city's Modernist buildings were neglected to the point of ruin. Before legislation to preserve this landmark architecture, many of the old buildings were demolished. Efforts are under way to refurbish Bauhaus buildings and restore them to their original condition.[149]

High-rise construction and towers

See also: List of tallest buildings in Tel Aviv

The Azrieli Centercomplex contains some of the tallest skyscrapers in Tel Aviv

The Shalom Meir Tower, Israel's first skyscraper, was built in Tel Aviv in 1965 and remained the country's tallest building until 1999. At the time of its construction, the building rivaled Europe's tallest buildings in height, and was the tallest in the Middle East.

In the mid-1990s, the construction of skyscrapers began throughout the entire city, altering its skyline. Before that, Tel Aviv had had a generally low-rise skyline.[150] However, the towers were not concentrated in certain areas, and were scattered at random locations throughout the city, creating a disjointed skyline.

New neighborhoods, such as Park Tzameret, have been constructed to house apartment towers such as Yoo Tel Aviv towers, designed by Philippe Starck. Other districts, such as Sarona, have been developed with office towers. Other recent additions to Tel Aviv's skyline include the 1 Rothschild Tower and First International Bank Tower.[151][152] As Tel Aviv celebrated its centennial in 2009,[153] the city attracted a number of architects and developers, including I. M. Pei, Donald Trump, and Richard Meier.[154] American journalist David Kaufman reported in New York magazine that since Tel Aviv "was named a UNESCO World Heritage site, gorgeous historic buildings from the Ottoman and Bauhaus era have been repurposed as fabulous hotels, eateries, boutiques, and design museums."[155] In November 2009, Haaretz reported that Tel Aviv had 59 skyscrapers more than 100 meters tall.[156] Currently, dozens of skyscrapers have been approved or are under construction throughout the city, and many more are planned. The tallest building approved is the Egged Tower, which would become Israel's tallest building upon completion.[157] According to current plans, the tower is planned to have 80 floors, rise to a height of 270 meters, and will have a 50-meter spire.[158]

In 2010, the Tel Aviv Municipality's Planning and Construction Committee launched a new master plan for the city for 2025. It decided not to allow the construction of any additional skyscrapers in the city center, while at the same time greatly increasing the construction of skyscrapers in the east. The ban extends to an area between the coast and Ibn Gabirol Street, and also between the Yarkon River

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tel_Aviv
  1. Ul listed tv wall mount
  2. Graham and brown wallpaper
  3. Lexus try before you buy
  4. Modern grey and white curtains

Schedule of Services

Access in synagogue restricted to people who can show Tav Yarok (or have sent copy by email to [email protected])

Masks are required at all times in the synagogue!

Schedule of Services

5:55pm – Mincha

6:25pm – Maariv

Friday, October 15 – Shabbbat Lech Lecha

5:50m – Candle Lighting

6:00pm – Mincha & Kabbalat Shabbat Carlebach

Our Kiddush reception in the Shomron Gardens to follow!

Shabbat, October 16-Shabbat Lech Lecha

8:45am – Morning Services

TLV’s Cholent & Kugel Kiddush Luncheon in the Garden

5:40pm – Mincha

6:00pm – Talmud Study

6:44pm – Maariv and Havdala

SHABBAT SHALOM!

 

Sours: https://metzion.org/index.php/services/
ISRAEL First Impressions (one day in Tel Aviv)

Plan now for the year ahead

Not sure when the next Jewish festival or holy day starts? Our handy calendar will help you plan ahead.

Did you know that we also have Shabbat Times for Melbourne, Victoria at the bottom of our page. Just scroll down to see this week's Shabbat times.

Note : All Jewish holidays begin at sundown the evening before the date shown below.

FESTIVAL/HOLY DAY2020/2021
5781
2021/2022
5782
Rosh Hashana September 19-20September 07-08
Yom Kippur September 28September 16
SuccotOctober 3-9September 21-27
Shemini AtzeretOctober 10September 28
Simchat TorahOctober 11September 29
ChanukahDecember 11-18November 28 - December 05
Tu B'ShvatJanuary 28, 2021January 16, 2022
PurimFebruary 26February 17
PesachMarch 28-April 4April 15 - April 23
Yom HashoahApril 8April 27
Yom HazikaronApril 14May 04
Yom Ha'atzmautApril 15May 05 
Lag B'OmerApril 30May 18 
Yom YerushalayimMay 10May 29
ShavuotMay 17-18June 04 - 06
Tisha B'AvJuly 18August 07 
Tu B'AvJuly 24August 12

 

Rosh Hashana

The Jewish New Year is a two-day festival celebrated by prayers at synagogue and by shared family meals. It is customary to eat apple dipped in honey. Both days of this festival are holy days of rest, on which various works are forbidden.

Yom Kippur

This is an evening and day of fasting spent in prayer at synagogue. Yom Kippur is a day of atonement and is considered a holy day of rest on which various works are forbidden.

Succot

This is a nine-day festival celebrating the travels of the Jewish nation in the desert en-route to Israel. During the first eight days of this festival meals are eaten in outdoor huts with covers made of tree branches called ‘Succahs’. It is also celebrated by shaking the ‘Four Kinds’ of plants. The last day of this festival is called Simchat Torah, when reading of the Torah Scroll is celebrated. The first and last two days of this festival are holy days of rest, when prayer services are held and various works are forbidden.

Shemini Atzeret

It directly follows the festival of Succot which is celebrated for seven days, and thus Shemini Atzeret is literally the eighth day. It is a separate—yet connected—holy day devoted to the spiritual aspects of the festival of Succot. Shemini Atzeret means the “Eighth Day of Assembly."

Simchat Torah

Simchat Torah literally means "Rejoicing of the Torah".  This day celebrates and marks the conclusion of the annual cycle of public Torah readings, and the beginning of a new cycle. The event is marked with great rejoicing, especially during the "hakafot" procession, in which there is singing and dancing with the Torah scrolls around the reading table in the synagogue.

Chanukah

Chanukah, the festival of lights, is an eight-day festival commemorating the rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem many centuries ago. It is celebrated by lighting on each night of the festival an eight-pronged candelabra, called a Chanukiah. It is also customary to eat oily foods such as doughnuts and latkes (potato pancakes) and to play games of Dreidel. Charity is also distributed during the festival.

Tu B’Shvat

Tu B'Shvat is intimately connected to the agricultural cycle of the Land of Israel. Known as the New year for trees, today this holiday is often celebrated by planting saplings and by participating in a seder-meal that echoes the Passover seder, in which the produce of trees, fruits and nuts are eaten.

Purim

Purim is a joyous festival commemorating an event in which the Jewish nation overcame the threat of annihilation. It is celebrated in four ways: reading the Scroll of Esther; giving out gifts of food; giving charity and a festive Purim meal. This day is also celebrated by dressing up and in general festivities.

Pesach

Pesach (Passover) is an eight-day festival celebrating the Exodus of the Jewish people from Egypt over three thousand years ago - ‘from slavery to freedom’. Traditional to Pesach is the Seder meal, usually held in a family setting incorporating many symbolic procedures emulating the Exodus. One of the major Pesach laws is not to eat any leaven or leaven products, including bread, and to eat Matzah for the duration of the festival. The first and last two days of this festival are holy days of rest in which prayer services are held and various works are forbidden.

Yom Hashoah

This day commemorates the Holocaust and the six million Jews who perished. We remember six million Jews that suffered, fought, and died. This is a serious day and is commemorated by ceremonies, lighting candles (six candles lit by survivors) and recitation of special prayers.

Yom Hazikaron

Yom Hazikaron is Israel's official remembrance day for the Fallen Soldiers of Israel and Victims of Terrorism. This day was enacted into Israeli law in 1963. While Yom Hazikaron has been traditionally dedicated to fallen soldiers, commemoration has also been extended to civilian victims of terrorism.

Yom Ha'atzmaut

This day is the national independence day of Israel. It is celebrated on the fifth day of the Jewish month of Iyar, and centres around the deceleration of the state of Israel by David Ben Gurion in Tel Aviv on May 14, 1948 (5 Iyar, 5708), and the end of the British Mandate of Palestine. It is observed through joyous festive activities and serving Israeli style foods. It is also common to decorate public and private spaces with Israeli flags and the like.

Lag B'Omer

Lag Ba'Omer, the 33rd day of the Omer, is a festive day on the Jewish calendar. It is celebrated with outings, bonfires, parades and other joyous events. Many visit the resting place of the great sage and mystic Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai, the anniversary of whose passing is on this day.

Yom Yerushalayim

Yom Yerushalayim (Jerusalem Day) is an Israeli national holiday commemorating the reunification of Jerusalem and the establishment of Israeli control over the Old City in the aftermath of the June 1967 Six-Day War. The day is officially marked by state ceremonies and memorial services.

Shavuot

Shavuot is a 2-day festival celebrated 7 weeks after the 2nd day of Pesach, commemorating the giving of the Ten Commandments to the Jewish Nation on Mount Sinai. During this festival, dairy meals are eaten and greenery is placed around the house and at synagogue. Families go to a synagogue to hear a reading of the Ten Commandments. Both days of this festival are holy days of rest, when prayer services are held and various works are forbidden.

Tu B'Av

Tu B'Av is a minor Jewish holiday of love, observed on the 15th day of the Hebrew month of Av. It is often referred to as the Jewish Valentine's Day.

Tisha B'Av

Tisha B'Av is an annual fast day, on which a number of disasters in Jewish history occurred, primarily the destruction of both the First Temple by the Babylonians and the Second Temple by the Romans in Jerusalem. Tisha B'Av is regarded as the saddest day in the Jewish calendar.

Sours: https://www.jewishcare.org.au/page/events/jewish-calendar

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Events

Fact of the day

From Latvia to Jerusalem, part 1

On a journey from Latvia to Jaffa, to St Gallen to London and finally Jerusalem, Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak Hakohen Kook (often known as ‘Rav Kook’) was appointed as the first Chief Rabbi of the Land of Israel in modern times.   Click here to learn more about this charismatic rabbi, whose legacy continues to inspire Jews across usual boundaries….

Born in 1865, Rav Kook was soon identified as a prodigy and became a top student at the famed Volozhin Yeshiva (which today would be in Belarus). Russian Jewry suffered, again, in 1881, from the aftermath of the assassination of Tsar Alexander II, prompting many Jews to consider their future elsewhere. 

Rav Kook’s first position was in Zaumel, where he yearned to make a life in the Land of Israel, then known as Palestine.  His yearnings were finally fulfilled when he moved to Jaffa in 1904 to become rabbi of that town.

Jaffa then was hardly significant – neighbouring Tel Aviv was not founded until 1909.  Rav Kook reached out to agricultural settlements around Jaffa, religious and non-religious, inspiring the pioneers who strove in near-impossible conditions to build a life in the Land.  They were all engaged in the mitzvah of settling the Land of Israel, fulfilling a Divine plan as best as humans could understand it.   When Theodore Herzl, not a religious figure, died in 1905, Rav Kook nonetheless delivered a scholarly, memorable eulogy, praising Herzl’s Zionism and care for the Jewish people (translation here.)

With the outbreak of World War One in 1914, Rav Kook was attending a conference in Europe. Since wartime conditions made travel home impossible, he sought refuge in St Gallen, Switzerland, before moving to London in 1916 where he became the rabbi of the Machzikei Hadas community, today in Golders Green, but which was then in Brick Lane, a centre of the large Jewish presence in the East End of London.

During his time there, he inspired many Jews and non-Jews alike, even in the tough wartime conditions. A poet and mystic as well as a scholar, Rav Kook visited London’s art galleries and open spaces, finding religious inspiration in the artistic and natural beauty he encountered in those places.  A leading exponent of the Zionist cause, he campaigned alongside Britain’s Chief Rabbi, Dr J.H. Hertz, for the landmark Balfour Declaration of 1917 which expressed Britain’s support for a Jewish state in Palestine.  This was the first such document from a great power since the later part of Biblical times when the Persian king Cyrus had given the Jews similar political support.

Rav Kook left London in 1919 after the end of the War to return home. In 1921, prior to the commencement of the British Mandate over Palestine, he was appointed the first Chief Rabbi of the Land of Israel in modern times.  He was particularly influential in setting up a religious infrastructure for what would then become the State of Israel and continued to reach out to both religious and secular.  He founded a landmark yeshiva with a broad curriculum, the ‘Central Yeshiva’, better known today as Mercaz Harav, wrote prolifically and spoke at the foundation stone setting of the Hebrew University in 1925.  The later was especially significant, since the university was not set up on religious lines; nonetheless, Rav Kook reached out to its leadership even though he opposed elements of the university’s syllabus, such as teaching Biblical Criticism which clashed with some fundamental Jewish beliefs.

On his passing in 1935, Rav Kook was deeply mourned by Jews all over the world.

His extensive writings remain popular works in many religious Israeli households and further afield.  Some of his works have been translated into English; a siddur incorporating his teachings is one of the latest.   Several biographies of him have also been written.

A publishing house, Mosad Harav Kook and a moshav, Kefar Haroeh, were named after Rav Kook.  His house, in the centre of Jerusalem, remains open to the public to visit, testament to the enduring impact he continues to have on Jews and Judaism today.

Here is a short film, showing pictures of Rav Kook’s life.

Sours: https://www.theus.org.uk/category/israel-70
STREETS OF JERUSALEM, ISRAEL - LEAVING MAHANE YEHUDA MARKET (Shuk Machane Yehuda)

7-Eleven to open hundreds of stores in Israel, but they’ll be closed on Shabbat

US convenience store mega-chain 7-Eleven is coming to Israel after signing a deal with Electra Consumer Products to open hundreds of stores over the next three years.

However, unlike other locations, the Israeli sites will be closed on Shabbat, the Jewish day of rest, from Friday evening until Saturday night.

Under the terms of the deal, Electra will invest NIS 60 million ($18.59 million) in setting up stores by the end of 2024, with the first outlet opening in Tel Aviv in 2022, the company said in a statement Tuesday.

The deal is for 20 years with the option to extend it to 50. After a one-off unspecified payment, Electra will then pay a monthly percentage of the stores’ income to 7-Eleven.

Electra said the stores will at first be opened in city centers, office areas and other places where there is a large movement of people.

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Electra CEO Zvika Schwimmer said the 7-Eleven stores will have an advantage over existing Israeli convenience stores and mini-markets by offering fast food, hot drinks and other unique items.

“I am sure that the shopping experience at 7-Eleven will be different and special for the Israeli consumer,” he said.

Schwimmer told the Globes financial news site that he had “received thousands of inquiries from franchisees and grocery store owners who want to convert their stores.”

With its “flourishing population and economic expansion,” Israel presents the ideal location for 7-Eleven to expand, 7-Eleven president and CEO Joe DePinto said in a statement.

The deal came in the wake of a memorandum of understanding signed between the companies in November 2020.

7-Eleven, with its catchphrase “Oh Thank Heaven For 7-Eleven,” has 77,000 stores in 18 countries.

Appliance maker Electra Consumer Products has been building its food division and in May acquired control of the Yeinot Bitan supermarket chain, which has around 200 stores across Israel.

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Shabbat Times in Tel Aviv (Israël)

ParachaEntréeSortieFriday October 15th, 2021Lech-Lecha17:3818:44Friday October 22th, 2021Vayeira17:3018:37Friday October 29th, 2021Chayei Sarah17:2318:30Friday November 5th, 2021Toldot16:1717:25Friday November 12th, 2021Vayeitzei16:1217:21Friday November 19th, 2021Vayishlach16:0917:18Friday November 26th, 2021Vayeshev16:0617:16Friday December 3th, 2021Miketz16:0617:16Friday December 10th, 2021Vayigash16:0617:17Friday December 17th, 2021Vayechi16:0817:20Friday December 24th, 2021Shemot16:1217:23
Sours: https://www.torah-box.net/


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